Anthurium Andre (Anthurium andreanum) is an evergreen perennial from the Aroid family, whose homeland is the tropical regions of South America. On the forest soils of Ecuador and Colombia, the epiphyte is distinguished by bright green oval-lanceolate leaves with a shiny surface, almost 30 cm long, on petioles of approximately the same length and a large, inflorescence heart-shaped leaf with a slightly bubbly or wrinkled surface. Its cob inflorescences consist of numerous yellow flowers. After the end of flowering, spherical orange fruits are formed on the plant.
Among the numerous varieties and hybrids of anthurium, there are specimens that differ in height, flowering duration and color palette. Anthurium Andre can bloom from 1 to 12 months with all the colors of the rainbow and many different shades. Some varieties surprise with their almost black or two-tone color.
Note to flower growers! The stems and leaves of the plant contain toxic substances that are dangerous to the life and health of people and pets. This should be taken into account when choosing a growing location, especially if there are small children and cats in the apartment.
Anthurium Andre feels great at home, but only under certain conditions of detention.
Anthurium flower Andre does not like direct sunlight. It is recommended to place it on windowsills from the east, north-east, west and north-west sides of the house. The light should be diffused, and the place may be partial shade. In the period from October to February, when there is not enough natural light, you can supplement the illumination of plants with fluorescent lamps or phytolamps.
The favorable temperature for growing Andre anthurium in the summer is from 20 to 25 degrees Celsius. Growth can slow down or stop if the temperature drops to 18 degrees. In winter, for 1.5-2 months, anthurium is in a dormant period and prefers to be kept in cool conditions with a temperature of 15-16 degrees. These cool conditions are conducive to bud formation and active flowering in the future.
Irrigation water for anthurium should be filtered or boiled, you can use tap water, but before watering it is recommended to add a small amount of lemon juice or a few drops of acetic acid to it. Soft, settled water with a temperature of 20-22 degrees is abundantly watered throughout the growing season. The next moistening of the soil is carried out only after a slight drying of the upper layer, but no more than 1-2 cm. In winter, the volume and frequency of watering are reduced. Lack and excess of moisture in the soil is equally dangerous for the life of anthurium.
A high level of humidity is necessary for Andre's anthurium throughout the year (even during the dormant period). To maintain it, it is recommended to carry out daily water procedures in the morning and evening hours in the form of spraying with warm water. An additional vessel with water, located next to indoor flowers, or a tray with wet expanded clay also contributes to increased humidity.
The potting mix must be breathable. This requirement is met by the soil for growing orchids, which can be purchased at a specialized store. When preparing the mixture yourself, it is imperative to take one part of vermiculite and coarse river sand, two parts of crushed pine bark, coniferous, peat and leaf land and a small amount of charcoal.
The flower container should be shallow, but with an obligatory drainage layer (at least 3 cm) and additional holes on the walls.
Nutrient dressings intended for orchids are applied to the soil during the growing season every 15-20 days.
In the first 5 years, the Andre anthurium plant is recommended to be transplanted once a year, and in subsequent years - as needed.
Anthurium Andre propagates in several ways: by apical cuttings (in the presence of aerial roots), by seeds, by dividing an adult bush into young divisions, by lateral offshoots.
The main pests of anthurium are scale insects and spider mites. Dealing with them is not easy and ineffective. A regular warm shower is an excellent means of preventing harmful insects.
The flower is often sick due to improper care or under improper maintenance conditions. The main diseases are stem rot, root rot, rust, anthracnose, downy mildew.
The most common causes of root and stem rot are low indoor temperatures and regular waterlogging of the soil.
Signs of anthracnose are dry brown tips on the leaves, which lead first to the complete drying of the leaf part, and then to the death of the entire culture. It is very difficult to cure a plant from this ailment, and sometimes it is simply impossible. As a preventive measure, experienced florists recommend regularly spraying with fungicides.
Withering of anthurium often occurs due to contact with an infected indoor flower or poor-quality substrate, as well as with a lack or excess of fertilizers.
Anthurium Andre Dakota. Care and watering
Anthurium André or Andrianum, called Anthurium andreanum in Latin, is a representative of the Aroid or Aronnikov family. Its homeland can be considered the rainforests of the mountains of Ecuador and Colombia. Anthurium Andre is an evergreen perennial with a short stem and shiny leaves of rich green color and elongated shape. They can be up to 30 cm long and 12 cm wide.
|Plant height:||40 cm|
|Flowering period:||Summer, autumn, spring|
|Soil type:||Fertile soil, substrate|
|Lighting:||For the sun and partial shade|
|Temperature:||20 deg. Celsius|
|Decorative signs:||Beautifully flowering, deciduous|
|Reproduction:||Offspring, apical cuttings|
|Types of feeding:||Root liquid top dressing|
|Irrigation type:||From below|
|Pot diameter:||12 cm|
leaves, especially young ones, can cause contact dermatitis, juice - food poisoning
• in rooms, primarily in florariums and "display windows"
• in winter gardens
• anthurium has very fragile roots, transplant carefully
• young plants (5-6 leaves) are transplanted the first time into pots with a diameter of 7-9 cm with a drainage layer of 3 cm, annually increasing the volume of the pot and the height of the drainage layer
• adult specimens are transplanted after 3-4 years
leaf land: coniferous land: peat: sand (2: 1: 1: 0.5) with the addition of coniferous bark and charcoal
• does not tolerate direct sunlight
• easily damaged by spider mites and scabbard at low air humidity, and with excessive moisture - by root rot
• at constant high humidity and low temperatures, rounded convex yellowish-green formations may appear on the leaves (non-parasitic disease)
• in dry air, the edges of the leaves may dry out
• blackening of the tips of the leaves is caused by an increased content of calcium salts in the soil
in room conditions, forced (from October to February) due to low illumination and humidity
• in spring or early summer by stem suckers (basal shoots) from the mother plant
• by seeds during artificial pollination, varietal qualities are lost
• the earthen coma must not be allowed to dry out
• in summer, daily spraying, in winter - 2-3 times a week
• water and spray should only be done with soft water
leaves are alternate, shiny, green, on long petioles, oblong-cordate
usually from spring to early December
• inflorescence - a cob (up to 15 cm long) with a bright bracts (veil) covered with dense, cordate or broad-heart-shaped, often with a wrinkled surface, up to 20 cm long
• there are a huge number of varieties
• to cause abundant flowering, anthurium should be kept at a temperature of 16-18 ° C in March-April
• flowers cut at the beginning of flowering last 3-5 weeks
The indoor flower is quite friendly to room temperature or a couple of degrees lower.
Keep in mind that the close proximity of the plant to heating devices is undesirable, and on hot summer days, the pot should be removed from the window. On a too cold windowsill, you can turn on the lamp for heat, and also carefully monitor the drafts: anthurium, like many other plants, does not tolerate them.
To understand what conditions are suitable for a flower, you need to remember where it comes from. Anthurium care at home requires maximum return from the owner of the flower. Watering, constant moisture, a strict temperature regime - all these are necessary conditions for the success of the enterprise. It is not always possible to recreate the tropics in an apartment, however, it is quite possible to provide the necessary humidity and care for the plant.
What you should pay attention to right after the plant comes into contact with you is the soil. Usually, the soil is used universal, which does not suit the flower. The first thing that needs to be done is to transplant it into its "native soil". First of all, it is a moist, slightly loose soil, it should contain peat, chopped pine or coniferous bark, charcoal, foam chips or sand. The ratio of peat, ground bark and sand is as follows: 2: 2: 1.
Like any plant, anthuriums must be transplanted with the soil "lump", not forgetting about drainage. The root system of these plants is superficial, so the drainage should take up about a quarter of the pot. This is especially important for young plants that may not “survive” excess moisture, remember to make holes in the pots.
Anthurium - home care. Perennial flowers are traditionally transplanted in spring. If the plant is not young and is not gaining much in growth, then this can be done every two years, each time leaving a little more space for the root system.
It is not necessary to transplant a flower "for growth". In any case, the root system will take up the entire space in a year, no matter how large the pot is. And next time the "container" may be disproportionately larger than the plant.
For stability, it is better to "tie" a newly transplanted flower to a stick, it has not yet "rooted" with roots to a new soil. After transplanting, the flower needs to be watered abundantly, humidify the air around.
Anthuriums after transplant
To ensure the required temperature, anthuriums are usually grown not in clay and ceramic, but in plastic pots, since they are "warmer".
Any soil must be disinfected before planting!
The easiest option is to bake it in the oven. To do this, sift the soil, spray it a little with water, spread it on a sheet.
Disinfection of soil in the oven
The main danger is overheating, in this case the soil, along with potential pests, will lose all useful substances. The optimum heating temperature is 70-90 degrees, the procedure time is half an hour. It is better to do this the day before transplanting, then the soil will have time to restore its balance. The next stage is soil preparation.
Universal primer will not work. The closest soil in composition is for orchids or violets. The soil for these plants is of the required acidity (Ph - from 4.5 to 6.5). In this case, the plant requires more frequent feeding, or you can add a little disinfected garden soil to the finished mixture. It is extremely difficult to find ready-made soil for these plants. Therefore, many growers make it themselves.
Soil and necessary materials for planting
Usually such a ratio of sod-humus-vermiculite is taken (1: 3: 1). Peat chips, pieces of pine bark and sphagnum moss are added to the mixture. Such a substance has the desired porosity, but at the same time moderately retains moisture.
If some element for creating soil is not at hand, you can always find substitutes.
|What do you need||What to replace|
|Perlite, vermiculite.||Coarse sand.|
|Fertile turf.||Soil for azaleas.|
|Sphagnum.||Swamp moss or coconut fiber.|
|Birch charcoal.||Plain pumice or chalk.|
The plant tolerates wet feeding well. During the period of active flowering - from mid-April to early October - it is enough to fertilize it no more than once every three weeks. Both special ready-made fertilizers and universal fertilizers are suitable. Moreover, it is better to alternate organic and mineral "feeding".
It is interesting that in winter the plant "sleeps" and no special procedures are needed. Watering is also reduced, however, if the duration of daylight hours approaches 12 hours, then the plant may not switch to winter mode. Usually during this period, the flowering of the plant does not stop, then it is necessary to preserve vitamin supplements in the winter months. The main thing is not to overdo it, if there is too much fertilizer, the plant may die due to root burns.
How to care for anthurium at home? First of all, provide the best conditions for lighting and humidification. Direct sunlight is contraindicated for anthuriums. The flower feels good in a bright room on the east or west side, with diffused light. Then its leaves take on a beautiful glossy shade.
Anthurium does not like drafts, however, it does not tolerate stale air, it is also required to avoid temperature fluctuations. This can be a problem for the grower. In summer it is necessary not to "jump out" beyond 25-27 degrees, and in winter - 18. Therefore, it is risky to leave it on a cool windowsill in winter.
You cannot put a flower close to the glass! In the summer it can get burned, and in the winter it can die from freezing. Hypothermia can lead to rot and parasites on the flower.
If in autumn the coolness will help the flower "fall asleep", then in the spring it is better to rearrange it in warmth for the emergence of buds. To ensure a smooth awakening of the flower, by March it is necessary to raise the temperature to a comfortable 25 degrees.
Anthurium is an indoor flower. How to take care of him?
Watering the plant is necessary only when the mineral layer of perlite or vermiculite is completely dry.
Waterlogging of the soil is dangerous! It can lead to the development of late blight or root rot.
Moisture that accumulates in the pallet (this is especially true during periods of "hibernation") must be removed immediately. In winter, the amount of watering is reduced by twenty percent. Inflorescences do not like excess moisture.
On hot summer days, on the other hand, the frequency of watering should be increased. In addition, the leaves of the plant must be wiped, as we remember, the plant picks up moisture well from the surrounding space.
Anthurium does not tolerate hard water. To soften it slightly, you can drop a little citric acid into the liquid.
To maintain the required moisture level, the plant is sprayed during hot periods 2 times, and in winter - once a day. Or put the plant on a pallet of wet gravel or sand.
Anthurium (also bearing the poetic name "flamingo flower") attracts amateur flower growers to many: various forms of bright shiny leaves - rounded, spatulate, with blunt tops (there are varieties that are grown precisely for the sake of leaves and embossed patterns on them) extraordinary, like wax flowers, densely arranged on the stem in a series of spirals and similar in shape to rhombuses and squares in color of their covers, similar to sails with a non-standard cob shape ... strong, pleasant to fetid. Each of its varieties has only its own unique smell, which can appear even at different times of the day.
In decorative, indoor and greenhouse floriculture, several dozen species and about a hundred hybrids of anthurium are bred. The most common are the following:
Not so common, but such varieties are also known:
Their differences among themselves relate to everything - the size, height, shape of the leaf and inflorescence with a veil, and even its color. Anthurium André, for example, is a large plant with dark green heart-like leaves that are arranged on long stalks. Often, many adventitious (aerial) roots are formed on its stems. The cover of the flower has the same shape as the leaves, and stands out with well-visible veins and a rich color palette. It is this variety that people like to grow in greenhouses.
Scherzer's anthurium is an epiphyte that uses another plant as a physical support, which allows it to be closer to the light source. It has short stems up to 40 cm high and leathery dark green leaves with a matte surface, dotted with small black dots. Its flowers are usually taller than the plant itself, and their covers are dense and rich in red (sometimes other colors are found). This type of anthurium is often bred at home.
The "special sign" of crystal anthurium is the leaves, the color of which depends on the age of the plant and changes from bronze-purple to dark green. Their appearance is also remarkable - medium, up to 20 cm long, heart-shaped, with a velvet surface, on which white veins stand out, resembling patterns on crystal products. The cover of the inflorescence is green or slightly purple.
Anthurium is magnificent, it is excellent, it looks like the previous variety. At home, it is stunted and also has large dark green leaves that are velvety and have white veins. The main difference between these varieties is that the color constancy of the leaves of the anthurium species is excellent. It is noteworthy that there are a number of transitional hybrid forms between the crystal and magnificent anthurium, so sometimes they can be confused.
Finally, the multi-dissected anthurium is a liana with leaves that seem to be dissected into separate sectors in the form of fingers. This external sign served as the basis for its name.
Even such a cursory review may indicate the amazing species diversity of the "alien" from the tropics. And since anthurium is an overseas guest, careful and attentive care is required for it. All growers note his capriciousness and exactingness to living conditions in latitudes alien to him. A number of anthurium varieties are adapted only for growing in heated greenhouses of botanical gardens, where they are fixed on special supports, so only a few species adapted to the room atmosphere can be found at home.
It is not difficult to take care of the Anthurium Andre plant and grow it. But most often the plant is bred in greenhouses to decorate bouquets.
But you can also buy a flower for the house to put in the living room, because it is believed that the plant brings happiness.
The Anthurium Andre plant is tropical and you need to create appropriate growing conditions. Therefore, we will consider the basic rules for caring for a plant.
Anthurium Andre is not picky about lighting and placement, it can grow in a darkened place. It is good to put it on a window that is located on the west side, or east.
In winter, the plant needs to be slightly highlighted for a longer flowering.
In the summer season, warm spring and autumn, Anthurium Andre requires a temperature of at least eighteen degrees.
In the winter season, the plant tolerates a temperature of 15 degrees well.
Anthurium Andre prefers abundant watering. In the summer, it needs to be watered so many times so that the top layer of the earth cover does not dry out. In winter, less watering is required, but the main thing is that the land should not dry out too much. It is important to let the water settle, so that the alkalinity of the water is less, add a little lemon juice.
Anthurium Andre loves moderate air humidity, since the plant is native to the tropics. Therefore, it is important to spray the plant twice a day.
This is especially true when the batteries are on. To preserve moisture and so that water does not stagnate, you need to put a tray with water and expanded clay down.
Anthurium Andre needs to be fed with fertilizers in spring and summer, and it is better to use fertilizers for flowering plants for this.
The Anthurium Andre plant has many aerial roots, and therefore the soil must be well aerated. Therefore, it is best to buy orchid primer in the store.
If you will prepare the mixture yourself, then you will need to mix two parts of leafy soil, peat, coniferous, and add pine bark.
Also add one more part of coarse sand and vermiculite, and add sphagnum moss on top of the soil.
If, after planting, Anthurium Andre begins to wither, turn yellow, flowering does not begin, the leaves fall off, this means that the plant is sick, or it was overpowered by pests, or the plant was improperly taken care of.
Therefore, it is important to first study the rules for caring for Anthurium Andre, and then follow them.
Reproduction of Anthurium Andre can be done using seeds from domestic plants. For this to happen, you need to pollinate the plant two or three times with a soft brush during flowering.
After about a year, the fruits will appear in the form of small orange berries. After they appear, you need to pluck them, remove the seeds from them and rinse with water. After that, place the seeds in a solution of potassium permanganate so that fungus and disease do not appear.
It is necessary to sow seeds without delaying time, but for a start it is better to plant them in a small bowl, preferably a flat one, for example, a plate. A sponge is preliminarily laid out on a plate.
After the first shoots appear, two weeks later they need to be dived into a container, where there will be a mixture of leafy earth, sand and high peat.
After two months, the pick is repeated, and the grown plants are transferred to a new substrate. And so two more times.
After reaching rosettes of leaves with a size of 7 centimeters in diameter, the seedlings are transplanted into pots with a volume of 200 milliliters. The plant will bloom in about four years.
It should be noted that this method of reproduction of Anthurium Andre at home is difficult and cumbersome. And hybrid varieties, moreover, lose their properties with this method.
A more convenient method would be vegetative propagation. It is necessary to cut off the upper part of the stem, and divide the lower into two or four parts, six or ten centimeters each.
It is important that air roots should be preserved on each part. They need to be planted in a small pot and covered with foil or glass.
Rooting of the cuttings will take place in three weeks. In late spring or early summer, cuttings can be planted.
You need to transplant flowers no more than once a year or two years. It is necessary that the entire pot be filled with roots, because Andre Anthurium does not like a lot of space, it is more comfortable for him in cramped dishes.
Therefore, when transplanting an earthen lump, you need to compact it well when transplanting into a larger pot.
Another way of reproduction is to divide the plant into several bushes.