Tolmia (Tolmiea) is a fairly compact plant belonging to the family of Saxifrage. The place where tolmiya grows is North America. Of all the variety of species of this plant in indoor conditions, only Tolmiya Menzies survives.
Tolmia Menzies Is a plant that covers the surface of the soil. The height is usually no more than 20 cm, and in diameter it can reach 40 cm. From adult leaves, shoots with young shoots and their own root system can form. Tolmia blooms with light green flowers with red blotches, collected in spikelets. In open ground conditions, tolmia is used by gardeners to cover the soil, and in indoor conditions - as an ampel plant.
The plant prefers diffused light. The best place for tolmiya will be a bright room, but without direct exposure to hot sunlight on the leaves. Tolmia is best placed on the northern windows, but it can be placed on the eastern and western windows, the only thing is that it will be necessary to shade the growth in spring and summer. If tolmiya is grown near the southern window, then it should always be protected from direct sunlight.
The optimum temperature for keeping a plant is between 15-20 degrees. Tolmia tolerates winter well at low air temperatures - about 10 degrees. The room with the plant must be constantly ventilated, since the plant does not tolerate stagnant air and constantly needs an influx of fresh air.
Tolmia prefers high humidity air. But you should not spray the leaves from a spray bottle. It is best to humidify the air with a tray of water or place the plant pot in wet expanded clay.
Watering for the plant should be regular and abundant, as it does not tolerate dry substrate. In winter, watering is reduced, but the soil in the pot should not dry out. It is worth watering with soft, settled water at room temperature.
Loose and light soil is suitable for growing tolmiya. The optimal soil composition for tolmiya should be mixed in equal parts of sand and leafy earth.
Tolmia responds well to the introduction of complex mineral fertilizers. In spring and summer, they must be applied to the soil at least twice a month. In autumn, feeding is gradually stopped, and in winter it is completely abandoned.
You can transplant a plant at any time of the year as needed. Place a thick layer of drainage material at the bottom of the pot.
It is quite simple to propagate tolmiya - with daughter rosettes with leaves. Each adult leaf has several rosette shoots with its own root system. It is them that should be transplanted into a new pot. You can root young shoots at any time of the year.
A common disease that tolmia is prone to is the so-called powdery mildew. Outwardly, it manifests itself in the form of a fluffy layer of white that appears on the leaves. The stems can also be affected by it. A sick plant can be cured with sulfur or special preparations against powdery mildew.
If the leaves of the tolmiya are pale, wither or fall off, then it is important to adjust the lighting or watering. And then the plant will delight its owner with a beautiful view and flowering.
It represents the development of new plants from various vegetative organs (stems, rhizomes, bulbs, leaves) or parts thereof. Vegetative propagation is widespread among almost all groups of ornamental plants. The only exceptions are annuals and true biennials (with a two-year development cycle), which do not vegetatively reproduce in natural conditions.
In perennials, vegetative reproduction is carried out using the stem, root, leaf, but even more often with the help of highly modified vegetative organs adapted for reproduction (tubers, bulbs, corms, rhizomes, whiskers). The essence of vegetative propagation is based on the ability of plants to regenerate, i.e. restoration by individual organs or their parts of all missing. Therefore, we are talking about the restoration of a whole plant organism. Sometimes, even from individual tissues or a group of cells of an organ, a whole plant can develop.
Many types of ornamental plants successfully reproduce in nature by bulbs, rhizomes, tubers, corms, root suckers. In floriculture, vegetative propagation of ornamental plants is due to a number of reasons. In some, during seed reproduction, varietal characteristics are not preserved (iris, lilac, rose, clematis, phlox, gladiolus, dahlia), while others form empty seeds or do not tie them at all.
All the variety of vegetative reproduction can be subdivided into natural and artificial.
Natural vegetative reproduction was formed during the long evolution of species and is a hereditary trait. Therefore, when cultivating flower crops, these properties must be skillfully used. Natural vegetative reproduction is carried out using the following vegetative organs:
whiskers - thin creeping shoots, rooting at the nodes and forming rosettes, then these shoots die off and lose contact with the mat
Rin plant (strawberry, ivy budra) (Fig. 2)
bulb - a shoot, consisting of a bottom (shortened wide stem) and modified leaves - fleshy scales that store water and nutrients (Fig. 3).
Bulbous plants reproduce by children (daughter bulbs formed from the bulbs of the mother plant - tulip, daffodil, hyacinth) and bulbs (bulbs that form in the axils of a leaf or inflorescence - white, bulbous, tiger lily)
root tuber - an extended root section. Is developing
on lateral or adventitious roots of a dahlia, daylily, chistyak
corm - a thickened stem base with scarious or leathery leaves at the top (gladiolus, crocus, montbrecia) (Fig. 4).
rhizomes - underground shoots with scaly leaves and buds in their axils and at the end of the shoot (cannes, astilba, funkia, goldenrod, lily of the valley, irises, peony, badan, rudbeckia) brood bud - a bud that forms on the leaves of some plants in open ground (bulbous bluegrass , hairy sedum, snow saxifrage, tolmia). Falling down, the brood bud gives rise to a new individual. Plants that reproduce in this way are called viviparous.
Artificial vegetative propagation can be divided into several basic techniques: division, cuttings, layering and grafting.
Division involves dividing the bush, rhizomes, root shoots, root and stem tubers, corms. There are roots in the detachable part of the plant or a specialized organ,
buds and stems, i.e. everything you need for further development. Therefore, the considered breeding technique is relatively simple and does not require complex agricultural techniques. The main concern comes down to disinfecting the cut site and planting a separate part in a loose, nutritious, normal soil mixture, where the plant develops relatively quickly.
By dividing the rhizomes, cannes, irises, phloxes, lilies of the valley, etc. reproduce (Figure 5). Before dividing, the rhizomes of some plants (cannes) are germinated in a greenhouse and cut into pieces with a pruner or knife (2-3 buds each). The cuts are sprinkled with crushed charcoal, and the cut pieces are planted in pots and filled with a mixture of turf and humus soil (1: 2).
1 The division of rhizomes begins when the plants have faded and the old roots die off.
2 The plant is dug up with a pitchfork and shaken off the soil.
3 The old parts of the rhizome are cut and removed, leaving only the young growths of the current year.
6 The soil, which is used to cover the rhizomes, is compacted. Put labels and poly van> t.
5 Each piece of rhizome is planted on a ridge, the roots are straightened along its slopes.
4 L true plates are shortened, the roots are pruned to 5-7 cm in length.
Fig. 5. Reproduction of iris Germanic by dividing the rhizome.
The division of the root tubers of ornamental plants is performed in greenhouses. The mothers, which were kept in a dry, cool room in winter, are abundantly sprayed before dividing and allowed to germinate. Then the root tubers (for example, dahlias) are cut with a sharp knife so that each has a part of the root collar with 1-2 buds. The cut parts are sprinkled with fine charcoal (fig. 6).
Dividing a bush is one of the most widespread, affordable and simplest ways. It is used for reproduction of native flowering shrubs (chubushniki, lilac, snowball viburnum), rhizome herbaceous perennials in open ground (gelenium, phlox, Korean chrysanthemums, delphinium, astilba, primrose).
For division, plants are used that are dormant - in spring and autumn. Cultures of spring flowering are divided in autumn, and summer and autumn - in spring and autumn. To do this, the plant is carefully dug out together with a lump of earth and divided with a sharp shovel, pruner or knife into approximately equal parts. Each separated part should have 2-3 shoots or buds.
By dividing stem tubers, tuberous begonia, crown anemone, and gloxinia multiply. The stem tubers dug up in the fall are dried, peeled and sorted. Then they are placed in sand or dry peat and kept in a cool room during the winter. Sprouted tubers are divided into several parts. Each division must have at least one kidney.
The separation of root shoots and root suckers from the mother plant is most often carried out in nurseries where there is a uterine plantation of root suckers, in which the root shoots and suckers are periodically separated with a sharp shovel. The separated plants are grown in the nursery, receiving standard planting material. This method is used to reproduce rooted lilacs, roses, variegated dogwood, perennial chrysanthemums.
Fig. 6. Division of dahlia root tubers.
The division of the corms into parts is carried out with a knife. Each part must have a piece of the bottom and one kidney. In this way, gladiolus, crocus, montbrecia are propagated.
Cutting is a method of reproduction, in which, under certain environmental conditions, the missing organs are formed in cuttings. In stems, roots are formed, and in leaves, roots and buds are formed.
Stem and leaf cuttings are relatively small parts of vegetative organs that are separated from the mother plant for rooting. For this process to proceed in the shortest possible time, it is necessary to create optimal modes of heat, light and moisture for each species and variety.
Stem cuttings are winter and lignified (in beautiful flowering shrubs - rose, lilac, hydrangea). There are also growing summer shoots, which have an unequal degree of lignification. Cuttings cut from such shoots are called green or semi-lignified. In perennials, stem cuttings are called herbaceous or green.
Lignified cuttings (hydrangea, lilac, spirea) can be rooted indoors. For these purposes, the shoots are cut into cuttings of 5-7 cm. The upper cut is made above the bud, retreating 0.5 cm, and the lower one - directly under the bud. Then they are rooted in a sandy substrate, which is poured with a layer of 4-5 cm on top of the nutrient mixture of the earth in greenhouses or dive boxes. The cuttings are planted obliquely so that the lower cut is in the sand and does not touch the ground, and the upper bud is located at the level of the sand surface. When planting cuttings in greenhouses, the distance in the rows should be 3-5, and in the aisles - 5-8 cm.
In March-April, cuttings are planted in greenhouses in boxes, which are covered with glass. The rooting rate is significantly increased when the boxes are heated from below. The cuttings are watered once a day, and on warm, sunny days they are sprayed additionally several times. The air temperature in greenhouses should be at least 18-20 ° С. Until the roots form, the cuttings are shaded from direct sunlight.
After massive rooting of cuttings in the soil of greenhouses, they begin to harden them.
Cuttings rooted in boxes in greenhouses are also taken out to greenhouses for hardening. At the beginning of summer, they are transplanted into peat cubes or paper cups with a nutrient mixture and grown in greenhouses. Greenhouse frames whiten slightly and are placed on supports in sunny weather, and removed in cloudy weather. Plant care is simple and involves regular watering. When the roots come out of the earthen coma, cuttings are planted in open ground. During planting, they are watered abundantly, which ensures a high survival rate of plants and further intensive growth. By autumn, some cuttings
their size is suitable for planting in a permanent place.
Reproduction by green cuttings is widely used in ornamental gardening (paniculata phlox, sedum). Carefully verified and selected purebred, healthy samples of young plants that have good rooting ability are taken as mother plants.
In the open field, cuttings are started as the shoots grow back and are completed at the most optimal time. This makes it possible to obtain cuttings of larger sizes and are resistant to unfavorable wintering conditions. Indoors, the propagation period for cuttings is longer and varies greatly depending on the biological characteristics of flower crops. Mass cuttings in greenhouses begin in early spring and continue until mid-summer.
For many ornamental open field shrubs, the best propagation times for cuttings coincide with the appearance of buds and flowering. However, these dates can vary significantly depending on the weather conditions of the year. June-July is the most favorable for many plants.
Cuttings are usually performed in greenhouses where flower seedlings were grown. The surface of the earth is loosened and carefully leveled, a layer of loose substrate is poured on top, into which the cuttings are planted. The best substrates are perlite, sand, and granular ion exchange resins.
Shoots for grafting are harvested in warm sunny weather in the morning, and in cloudy weather - throughout the day. Cuttings are cut with a sharp clean knife, the average length is 5-7 cm. The cuts are made oblique: the upper one is above the kidney, and the lower one is under the kidney. Usually the stalk has 2-3 buds and the same number of leaves. The bottom sheet is removed. The upper large leaves, which have a large evaporation surface, are cut by half or one third. Chopped cuttings are sprayed, placed in a bucket of moss or water, and stored in a cool room until they are planted in a greenhouse.
Before planting, the surface of the substrate is leveled, moistened and marked. The distance between the rows is 5-7, and in a row - 3-5 cm, the planting depth is 1.5-2 cm. After planting, the cuttings are sprayed and covered with a frame or film (providing shading with whitewash).
The temperature in the greenhouse should be 20-25 ° C, the air humidity 85-90%, as evidenced by drops of water on glass (film), as well as on the leaves of cuttings. Water it 2-3 times a day, and in hot weather - up to 5 times. Semi-automatic irrigation at regular intervals gives good results.Water enters through pipes through small calibrated holes and evenly sprinkles the planted cuttings in thin streams. When cutting roses, carnations, chrysanthemums and other plants, various fog-forming devices are used, with the help of which the temperature and humidity of the air necessary for rooting are maintained.
An important technique for increasing the rooting rate of cuttings, reducing the period of their rooting, increasing the size of the roots and the aerial part of cuttings is the use of growth stimulants. The latter include substances capable of significantly accelerating plant growth and activating root formation in very small doses. For this purpose, cuttings are treated with weak solutions of heteroauxin, indolylbutyric and naphthylacetic acids.
The rooting times of green cuttings are not the same for different types of ornamental plants. Roots appear most quickly (on the 6-8th day) in cuttings of geranium, phlox, tradescantia, chrysanthemum, fuchsia, coleus, heliotrope. In flowering shrubs, this period is longer. So, for action it is 16, for a climbing rose "New Dawn" - 18, for a mock orange - 20 days, for some conifers - up to 3-4 months.
After the formation of roots, cuttings are gradually hardened: they increase lighting and airing, reduce watering, first remove the frames in cloudy weather, and then remove them completely.
Gloxinia, Saintpaulia, primrose, rudbeckia, funkia, aconite are propagated by leaf cuttings.
In these plant species, in the process of leaf rooting, adventitious roots and buds are formed, from which the stem develops. A kidney most often develops from the upper skin of a leaf cutting, and roots (aster, heuchera, lupine, goldenrod) develop from the lower skin.
Leafy cuttings can form roots in water, sand, and indoor soil. Rooting methods for leaves are different. For example, gloxinia, saintpaulia are propagated by leaf blades with petioles, which are placed in water. Roots appear at the end of the petioles after 2-3 weeks. After a while, a bud begins to develop in this leaf, and from it the stem of a new plant begins. Otherwise, plants with very large leaves (begonia rex) multiply. Such leaves are cut into separate pieces and rooted in the sand, or they take a whole leaf and make transverse cuts on the veins on the lower side of it. Then the leaves are laid out and pinned on the surface of the sand in boxes or sprinkled with sand on top. The boxes with leaves are covered with glass. After a while, new plants form at the cuts.
Some types of flowering plants can be propagated by leaf cuttings even in open ground (small alpine petals, funkia, aconite, New Belgian aster). For these purposes, the ridges are arranged in shaded places. Well-formed leaves with normally developed petioles are harvested as cuttings. Leafy cuttings are planted in the soil to a depth of 1.5 cm from 300 to 900 pieces. by 1 m. Ridges with cuttings are watered and sprayed daily to ensure constant moisture to the substrate and cuttings.
In bulbous plants, fleshy scales are modified leaves. Therefore, some species (for example, lilies) are propagated by scales. The latter are separated with a small part of the bottom and planted in boxes with sand to a depth of 2/3 of the size of the scales. The distance between the rows is 5, and in a row - 2-3 cm. After a while, bulbs form at the base of the scales, which by autumn reach about 1 cm in diameter. In September, they are planted on the ridges. Flowering occurs in 2-4 years.
Layers, in contrast to stem cuttings, are shoots that are rooted without separating them from the mother plant. Therefore, the rooting process is not difficult. It is enough only that the rooted stems are in a loose and moist soil substrate.
When propagating flowering shrubs (rose, lilac, hydrangea, spirea, etc.), horizontal, vertical, arcuate, airy and other layering are used.
Horizontal layering is obtained from a radial layout on the soil surface of shoots, which are then pinned and sprinkled with earth. From the buds of the stems, vertically growing shoots develop. The latter spud about 1/3 of their height. By autumn, several plants are formed from each horizontal layer. In this way, roses, lilacs, hydrangeas, chubushnik, actinidia, derain, spirea, terry viburnum are propagated.
Vertical layering is the hilling of annual growth of plants at 1 / 3-1 / 4 of their height (hydrangea, spirea, currant, deytion).
Arcuate layering is obtained by bending and pinning the lower branches of the bush in the spring to the bottom of a shallow groove. The tops of the shoots are brought out and tied to pegs, and the grooves are filled with nutritious loose earth.
Aerial layers are used for propagation of some ornamental plants with highly elongated stems. In order to form a lower, compact plant, the leaves are removed at a certain height, and the stem is covered with moss, over which plastic wrap is wrapped. Moss is periodically moistened until well-developed adventitious roots are formed. Then, below the root system, the stem is cut and the plant (for example, yucca, aralia, rhododendron) is transplanted into a new pot.
Grafting is the transfer of a part of one plant and artificial fusion of it with another close in species or genus. This method allows you to preserve the decorative and biological characteristics of varieties and forms, therefore, is widely used in ornamental gardening in the cultivation of roses, lilacs, azaleas and many decorative forms of woody and shrub plants.
The plant to which the grafting is done is called the stock, and the grafted part of the plant is called the scion. As a scion, a stem cutting with several buds or one bud (eye) with a part of wood and bark is used. For rootstock, young, healthy plants are usually used that are resistant in local conditions, have a well-developed root system, and also provide reliable survival and compatibility with the scion.
There are many methods of vaccination, but the most common is budding - a vaccination carried out by one kidney (eye). It is used to propagate varietal seedlings of roses, lilacs and other plants.
When performing budding, it is necessary to take into account the following: the grafted bud (in the scion) must be completely formed, and the presence of sap flow (near the stock) must ensure the lag of the bark. In Belarus, in the open field, two budding periods are possible: spring and summer.
In the spring, as soon as the sap flow begins at the rootstock and the bark lags behind, they begin budding with a sprouting eye, i.e. when the bud of the surviving scion germinates and forms a cultural shoot of the oculant. From this shoot, the crown of an ornamental plant is then formed. For spring budding, shoots that are well matured with normally developed buds are used, which are cut from mother plants in late autumn or early spring before the buds swell. The cut shoots are sorted, damaged and unripe parts are removed, tied into bundles and stored in special rooms or chambers with a constant mode - temperature 0-2 ° C and humidity 60-70%.
In Belarus, spring budding of lilacs can begin in late April - early May, and roses - in mid-May.
In spring budding, the scion starts growing early. By autumn, lilac oculants reach an average of 65-80 cm, and some - more than 1 m.Roses by autumn form bushes with 3-4 lateral, sufficiently ripe shoots that reach 25-40 cm.
Summer budding is carried out in July - August with a sleeping eye, i.e. after the scion grows together with the stock, the bud of the scion remains dormant until the spring of next year. The survival rate of buds during the summer period of budding in lilacs is 70-100, in roses - 60-100%. However, the safety of summer eyepieces after overwintering in comparison with spring ones is low (for example, in lilacs and roses, after wintering, sometimes from 40 to 60% of eyepieces perish).
So, spring budding is more promising than summer budding, since it not only ensures good bud survival and a high yield of standard material, but also significantly reduces the growing period of grafted seedlings.
In the open field, budding of ornamental plants can be done not only at the indicated time, but also in the first half of summer, i.e. in the second or third decades of May and June. To do this, indoors, it is necessary to have specially grown mother plants, which will serve as material for the scion.
During the dry period, the stock is watered abundantly. In terms of the overall reproductive efficiency, these budding periods occupy an intermediate position between spring and late summer periods.
As a rootstock for budding, one-, two-, three-year-old seedlings are used, the diameter of the root collar of which reaches 0.62-0.8 cm.The budding is carried out in the root collar or 6-8 cm higher than it, depending on the biological characteristics of the species and plant varieties. Before budding, annual, well-ripened shoots are harvested from mother plants and leaves are removed from them, leaving only petioles. The cut shoots are placed in a basket or bucket with wet moss and transferred to a cool room.
For budding, a bud (eye) with a thin layer of wood and bark (shield) is cut from the middle part of the cutting (scion). A T-shaped cut is made on the seedling of the stock. With the help of a blade and a bone of the oculating knife, slightly separate the bark along a longitudinal section and carefully insert the kidney with a shield until it stops. The upper part of the shield, which does not fit in the longitudinal section, is cut off. Then the eyepiece is tied with plastic tape: from the incision with a shield from the bottom up, leaving only the kidney (eye) free.
Approximately two weeks after budding, the accreted buds are counted (their petiole disappears with a light touch), the strapping is monitored and, if necessary, loosened it. In autumn, the oculants are sprinkled with earth or peat to a height of 15-20 cm, protecting the buds from freezing. In the spring, before the start of sap flow, they uncoil and remove the harness. To ensure more intensive growth of the occluded bud (eye), the stock is cut 6-8 cm above the grafting site. To the left hemp (thorn) is later tied to the growing ooculent shoot. The thorn protects the scion shoot from mechanical damage during soil and plant care. Thorn cutting is carried out after the grafted shoot
it grows well with the stock and acquires an upright position.
Floral plants affected by fungal and viral infections reproduce poorly, bloom poorly, and their flowers lose their decorative qualities. To obtain healthy flowering plants from contaminated material, the meristem culture method is used. It is based on the cultivation of cultures from the meristem tissue of plants, which retains the ability to form new cells throughout its life.
The meristem culture method has been widely used in industrial floriculture in many countries for the reproduction of virus-free mother plants of carnation, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, freesia, daffodil, dahlia, etc.
The apical meristem tissue is at the point of growth. To obtain it from mother plants, the most developed and healthy shoots are taken, washed thoroughly with distilled water, and some of the leaves are removed. All work with meristem culture requires the strictest sterility.
In a special box, after the growth point is exposed, the meristem with two rudimentary leaves 0.2-0.6 mm in size is cut with a sterile knife, transferred into a test tube with a nutrient medium and closed with a ground stopper. The test tube is placed in a chamber where a given mode of humidity, illumination and temperature is maintained. Isolation of the meristem is performed under a binocular microscope.
The period of development of plants from the meristems in different species is not the same: in gladiolus - about 15 days, and in carnation, chrysanthemum - up to 2 months. The survival rate is on average 70-80%. After the plants reach 3-5 cm in height and their root system develops well, they are transplanted into pots with a sterile perlite or high peat substrate.
Plants grown in this way are distinguished by larger and brightly colored flowers, high yield, increased vigor. They are commonly used as mother material.