A herbaceous perennial plant, marjoram (Origanum majorana) is a member of the Oregano genus of the Lamiaceae family. In the wild, this plant is found in North Africa, Central Europe and the Middle East. This herb was grown in Ancient Egypt, the Roman Empire and Hellas as a medicinal, decorative and spicy plant. The Greeks believed that marjoram had magical powers that could return love and courage to a person, they believed that such a herb received the smell from the goddess of love Aphrodite, in this regard, the newlyweds decorated their heads with marjoram wreaths. The Romans believed that this plant is a powerful aphrodisiac. Today, the spicy herb marjoram is used in all countries as an additive to first courses, vegetables, salads and fish. This herb is used both fresh and dried. This seasoning is used in the preparation of liqueurs, desserts, liqueurs, and also as a flavoring for vinegar and tea.
The height of straight and branched shoots varies from 0.2 to 0.5 m, they have a gray-silver color. The stems are lignified at the base. The shape of obtuse whole-edged leaf plates is spatulate or oblong-ovate, they have petioles, both surfaces are gray-tomentose. Oblong inflorescences are also tomentose-furry, they include 3-5 sessile spike-shaped bundles of a round-ovoid shape. Corollas in small flowers are white, light red or pink. Flowering begins in July or August. The fruit is an ovoid smooth nutlet. As a rule, this perennial is cultivated by gardeners as an annual, which is called garden marjoram.
Marjoram has very small seeds, so when sown in open soil there is a high chance that they will not germinate. In this regard, this spice is recommended to be grown through seedlings. Before starting sowing, the seed should be combined with dry sand in a ratio of 1: 5. Sowing is carried out in the first days of April, while the boxes need to be filled with a soil mixture consisting of turf and humus (2: 1), into which you need to pour crushed chalk. The soil mixture must be well moistened, after which grooves are made in it, the distance between which should be from 40 to 50 mm. It is only necessary to deepen the seeds into the substrate by 0.2–0.3 cm, while on top they are sprinkled with dry soil mixture through a sieve. The box on top must be covered with foil or glass, after which it is removed to a warm place (from 20 to 22 degrees). The first seedlings should appear in 15–20 days, after which the cover should be removed from the container, and the crops should be removed for 7 days in a cool place (from 12 to 16 degrees). After a week, the seedlings must be provided with the following temperature regime: at night from 14 to 16 degrees, and in the daytime - from 18 to 20 degrees.
After the seedlings appear, watering the seedlings must be done as needed, while taking into account that the substrate must be constantly moist. Also, the surface of the substrate should be loosened regularly. After 1 pair of true leaf plates are formed in the plants in the first days of May, they should be cut out according to the 6x6 or 5x5 centimeters scheme into a greenhouse or a warm greenhouse. There, the marjoram will grow before transplanting into open soil. However, if the seedlings sprout quite rarely, then it will be possible to do without picking. 10 days before transplanting the plants into open soil, you should start hardening them, for this you need to remove the film for a while every day. The duration of such a procedure should be increased gradually. The seedlings will be ready for planting when they can stay in the fresh air around the clock. During the hardening of the seedlings, it is also necessary to gradually reduce the number of waterings.
MAJORAN - how to grow, plant, care and propagate marjoram seedlings
Planting marjoram seedlings in open soil is carried out after return spring frosts are left behind. Depending on the region, this time may fall on the last days of May or the first days of June. If you plant from 15 to 20 large and well-developed seedlings on 1 bed, then this amount is quite enough to provide the gardener with the necessary volume of flowers and foliage.
For planting, you need to choose a well-lit place, which must be protected from gusts of wind and drafts.
It is recommended to grow this plant on loamy or sandy loam soil, because it is well warmed up by the sun. It is best to plant marjoram in an area where potatoes were previously grown. At least half a month before planting marjoram in the garden, it is necessary to prepare the site. To do this, it must be dug to a depth of 20 centimeters, while 20 grams of urea, 30 to 40 grams of superphosphate, half a bucket of compost or humus and 20 grams of potassium sulfate per 1 square meter of the plot should be added to the soil. When the digging is completed, the site must be spilled with lukewarm water, while 5 liters are taken per 1 square meter.
Planting and caring for such a plant is not burdensome, but so that there are no problems with the plant, it is necessary to adhere to the rules of agricultural technology of this culture. The distance between seedlings should be from 15 to 20 centimeters, and the row spacing should be from 40 to 45 centimeters. Immediately before planting, the holes need to be watered abundantly, while first pouring 1 handful of compost connected to the soil into each one. Then the plants are planted, they need to be taken with a lump of earth, after which the holes must be filled with soil, which is well tamped. The planted plants need to be watered. After 15–20 days, the seedlings should be fully rooted after transplanting into open ground. The first days after planting, marjoram must be protected from direct sunlight, and it must also be watered systematically. After the plants take root in a new place, during one of the waterings, they will need to be fed with a solution of nitrate (15 grams of the substance are taken for 1 bucket of water), while 10 liters of nutrient mixture should go to 1 square meter of the bed.
When growing marjoram in open ground, it should be watered in time, weeded, loosened the surface of the beds, fed, and if necessary, protected from diseases and harmful insects. It should be remembered that marjoram, like few garden crops, needs timely weeding and loosening of the soil, otherwise it will negatively affect its growth and development.
Despite the fact that marjoram is resistant to drought, it belongs to moisture-loving plants, in this regard, it needs to be watered regularly and often. Watering is carried out in the early morning or in the evening after sunset. It is forbidden to use cold water for this. Starting from the middle of the summer period, the number of waterings should be gradually reduced, while the soil will need to be moistened only when a crust appears on its surface. When the bushes are watered, the surface of the site must be loosened.
When 20 days have passed after transplanting marjoram into open soil, it will need to be fed with complex fertilizer. To do this, use a nutrient solution consisting of 15–20 grams of superphosphate, 10 grams of urea and the same amount of potassium salt (per 1 square meter of land). One feeding for this plant is quite enough for it to grow and develop normally.
Marjoram is harvested 2 times per season, namely: in the last days of July and the first in August, as well as in September and early October. When collecting raw materials, the entire leafy part of the bush is cut off at a height of 60–80 mm from the surface of the site, using a very sharp knife for this. After that, the grass is washed and dried very well. To do this, it can be tied in bundles and hung in a well-ventilated and shaded place (under a canopy or in the attic) or laid out on shelves and racks, which must first be covered with paper. When the grass is completely dry, it should be sorted out, while it is necessary to remove injured or yellow foliage. Then the marjoram is thoroughly crushed to a powdery state and poured into glass jars, which must be sealed with a lid. The herb is stored in a dark place.
As a rule, the area where leaf crops were grown is well suited for planting root crops: carrots, radishes, turnips and beets.
While the marjoram is young and has not had time to get stronger, it can get Alternaria. In the affected bush, growth stops, and specks form on its leaf plates. The disease develops actively in wet weather with thickening of the planting. The diseased plant must be sprayed with a fungicide solution.
On such a plant, the larvae of the marjoram moth can settle, which feed on its foliage. To get rid of the larvae, the bush and the surface of the soil under it must be treated with an insecticidal solution.
To date, gardeners cultivate only 2 types of marjoram: floral and leaf. Leafy appearance - the bush has a branched strong stem with lush leaves and a small number of flowers. In the flower species, the roots and stems are not as strong as in the leaf, and its flowering is not distinguished by splendor. Both of these species are cultivated as a spice, decorative and medicinal plant. The most popular varieties are:
It is in the flowering tops of marjoram that active biological substances are found. This herb contains zinc, manganese, pectins and flavonoids, phytoncides, vitamins A, C and P, as well as an essential oil enriched with terpineol, linalool and sabinene hydrates. Thanks to such a rich composition, this plant has the following healing properties:
Tea is prepared from this plant: for this, half a liter of freshly boiled water is combined with 2 tsp. dry or fresh marjoram flowers, the mixture is allowed to brew. Only 1 tbsp. this drink will help with migraines.
The ointment made on the basis of this plant is used for abrasions, rheumatism, sprains, bruises and a runny nose in infants. To make such a remedy, it is necessary to combine 1 teaspoon of alcohol, dried marjoram greens and unsalted fresh cow butter. The resulting mass must be warmed up in a water bath for 10-15 minutes, then it should be filtered and wait until it cools down. If the baby has a runny nose, then with such a remedy it is necessary to lubricate his nose from the inside. And with sprains and rheumatism, the agent must be rubbed into the problem area.
The most valuable is the essential oil of this plant, which is a light yellow liquid with a warm and tart odor. With the systematic use of this remedy for aromatherapy, you can forget about the feeling of anxiety, nervousness for a long time, and also feel a surge of vivacity. This remedy will also help get rid of corns, warts and keratoses. To do this, you need to combine olive oil and a few drops of this essential oil, this mixture should be regularly smeared with problem areas. A few drops of this oil can be added to foot and hand cream, as a result, the skin becomes very soft and tender.
Heading "Ask Uncle Vova": The universal properties of the marjoram seasoning
When using a small amount of such a plant, even a very strong migraine disappears, but if an overdose occurs, the pain will become much stronger. It is better for pregnant women to refrain from the frequent use of large amounts of marjoram as a preparation or seasoning, because it contains phytoestrogens hormones. It is also better to refuse to use such a herb for people with increased blood clotting, suffering from thrombosis or thrombophlebitis. Children under 5 years old also do not need to give preparations based on marjoram, as well as dishes with this plant.
Author: Natalia Category: Garden plants Published: 04 February 2019 Last revised: 06 January 2021
Peppermint (lat.Mentha piperita), or cold mint or English mint, or peppermint, or chill - a herbaceous perennial, a species of the genus Mint of the Lamiaceae family, or Lipocytes, bred by hybridization of garden mint (spikelet) and water mint. Peppermint was considered a valuable plant in ancient Rome: mint leaves were used to rub furniture, and rooms were sprayed with water infused with mint.
In ancient Egypt, mint was placed in the tombs of the pharaohs, and it got its name in honor of the nymph Menta, who was turned into a plant with a wonderful, delicate, but cold aroma.
The mint plant is very popular in English cuisine as a spice for lamb sauce. Americans use mint as an ingredient in fruit and vegetable salads, and as an additive to tomato juice and mixed drinks. Peppermint is grown for the manufacture of medicines of various effects.
Chard is a powerful plant up to 60-70 cm high, depending on the variety.
Important! The vegetable is a close relative of the beet, but does not form a root vegetable. It is prized for its large leaves that rise above the ground on tall, thick stems.
Chard is similar to beet tops, which is why it is called "leaf beet".
Interesting! The vegetable has several names - shnitt chard, petiolate and leaf chard.
The leaves and stalks of chard are palatable and less coarse than beetroot. Leaves and fleshy stems, which can reach 7-8 mm in diameter, are edible in this vegetable. Eating this vegetable daily can help boost immunity and promote health.
In the first year, a large, vertical rosette of leaves is formed on long petioles. In the second year, a branched peduncle with green flowers appears.
The culture is cold-resistant, the seeds can germinate at a temperature of + 5 ° C. It develops best at + 22-28 ° C. It tolerates short-term frosts up to -2-3 ° C, and adult bushes up to -5 ° C.
Nigella is grown only from seeds. This can be done by seedling or by sowing directly on the site. For seedlings, planting is done in March or April. The culture grows quickly and within a month and a half after sowing, you can enjoy its flowering in the flowerbed.
For planting, it is better to take peat pots or tablets. Seedlings are planted with them in the ground without injuring the sensitive root system. The tablets must first be soaked in water to swell. Fill the pots with a mixture of peat and sand. Embed the seeds by 2 cm. Water and cover the crops with foil, organize a greenhouse.
Nigella sprouts quickly. The first shoots can hatch within 10 days. The shelter must be removed, water the substrate a little. The temperature for growing seedlings indoors should not fall below + 22 ° C. Monitor lighting. Plants should not be exposed to direct sun. Better to place them under diffused light.
On the site, seedlings can be planted as early as May. The main thing is that there is no rain a week before, otherwise the soil will not have time to dry out and the plants will not take root. The weather should be sunny and no wind.
Dig holes for each seedling at a distance of 15-20 cm, corresponding to the size of an earthen ball with roots. Maintain a distance of 40-45 cm between rows. If the plantings are too dense, this will negatively affect flowering, the seeds may not have time to ripen. Place the seedlings in the holes together with the peat pot. You can add some mineral fertilizers if the soil is poor. Sprinkle soil over the hole and water it. There is no need to mulch the site, it is detrimental to the culture.
Observing the conditions of maintenance and care, you can grow a wonderful plant. Using Agapanthus seeds, you can get seedlings, however, when growing from seeds, you should be patient, since the first arrow with flowers can only be seen in 5-7 years.
Growing a flower using a plot from the mother plant, flowering will be immediately upon planting in the ground.
There are three ways of reproduction of Agapanthus: seeds, division of basal rosettes and shoots.
Seeds are planted in early spring. First, they are soaked in cold water for 2 to 3 hours. A wide container or box is prepared, as well as fertilized loose peat soil and drainage. A drainage with a height of 3 - 5 cm is poured at the bottom of the box, then soil is poured, it is well moistened with a sprayer. Shallow pits are made, one seed is placed in each. All are sprinkled with earth and lightly tamped. The box must be covered with cellophane or glass to create a greenhouse effect. 2 - 3 times a day, the covering material is removed for 20 minutes for ventilation. It is necessary to monitor the moisture content of the soil, do not allow it to dry out. After 1-2 weeks, the first shoots will appear from the seeds of Agapanthus, at this stage the covering material is removed. As soon as the fourth leaf grows, the seedlings can be transplanted into separate pots with more fertile soil.
Reproduction by division is carried out in autumn or early spring before flowering. The plant is completely dug up, trying to pick up the roots deeper. Lightly shake off the root system from the ground, and, using a sharp knife, cut off part of the roots with 2-3 basal rosettes. To exclude suppuration of the sections, they are treated - dried and covered with activated carbon. The separated parts are sprayed with water, the roots are wrapped in a damp cloth. In this form, the plant must be kept for several days, and then planted in the ground. In the first days after transplanting, the amount of water for irrigation should be minimal. As soon as the plant takes root and grows, full watering is performed.
In a fairly mature plant, young shoots appear next to the main rosette - daughters, which can be separated and planted as independent plants. Moreover, this method of reproduction requires special care, when separating the seedling from the mother bush, you must try not to damage the roots, otherwise both the seedling and the adult plant may suffer.
Mature plants do not like frequent replanting. As a last resort, it is recommended to change the location of the bush every 3 years. Young flowers are more tolerant of changing growing locations.
Since the root system of Agapanthus is weak, you should be extremely careful when digging up, the roots may break.
The flower is sick due to frequent watering, as a result of which the roots begin to rot, the leaves turn yellow.
In insufficient light, the peduncles are strongly stretched, which can lead to their breakage.
When attacked by scale insects and spider mites, the leaves dry up and fall off. For pest control, soap solution and insecticides are used to treat the affected areas.
During the entire period of growth and flowering, the plant is watered abundantly, which ensures good flowering. Water stagnation should be avoided, in which case the roots may begin to rot. The flower needs to provide good drainage of the soil. As the temperature drops, the amount of water is reduced. In winter, watering the plant is not required, just make sure that the roots do not dry out.
When growing Agapanthus outdoors, a number of rules must be followed.
In the cold season in closed rooms, due to the working heating system, the air is dry, but this does not in any way affect the well-being of indoor Agapanthus.
Additional spraying will not hurt the plant, but its absence will not harm the flower. Agapanthus at home gives a lush color only in wide pots with a good drainage system and subject to abundant watering, periodic fertilizing.
Perennial Agapanthus is one of the favorite ornamental plants among gardeners.
Abundant green dense foliage, tall peduncles, lush bright flowers can decorate any flower bed or flower garden. Many people use Agapanthus flowers in floristry. The beneficial antiviral properties of rhizomes are widely used in traditional medicine.