Lately, mushroom lovers cannot always boast of large stocks of this delicacy. Either the weather is unfavorable, then there are fears of collecting poisonous mushrooms, since they are saturated with harmful substances due to the proximity of railways or highways. But many simply adore mushrooms in different forms - salted, pickled, dried and fried. There are, of course, craftsmen who have learned how to grow mushrooms at home. For example, champignons, with good care and proper maintenance, give good yields. But this process takes a lot of time, patience and energy, and it is more profitable to grow mushrooms on an industrial scale.
Oyster mushrooms are forest mushrooms that grow in natural conditions for a long period (from early spring to almost late autumn). Mushroom pickers are very fond of them for their taste, nutritional value and ease of collection, as oyster mushrooms grow in large groups on stumps left over from willow, aspen, poplar and linden. Mushrooms can be found in almost all forest regions.
The appearance of oyster mushrooms, or rather their color, changes depending on age. The dark smooth caps of young mushrooms gradually acquire a grayish tint, and later become almost completely white. The average diameter of the caps is from 5 to 15 cm. In terms of taste, oyster mushrooms resemble porcini mushrooms and can be an excellent alternative to champignons.
Observant mushroom pickers have long studied the conditions for growing mushrooms in the forest and apply this knowledge in practice, having adapted their backyard plots for oyster mushroom breeding. Caring for them is simple and does not require large material investments.
The mycelium is the basis for growing mushrooms, so its quality must be at a high level. It is very important that the mycelium contains no impurities of other types of fungi and there is not the slightest hint of the presence of pathogens. This must be taken into account when purchasing it and use only the services of specialized stores. The amount of mycelium depends on the area on which it is planned to grow oyster mushrooms. Storage conditions - cool room or bottom shelf of the refrigerator. The maximum shelf life is 90 days.
A land plot for growing oyster mushrooms can be located in an ordinary vegetable garden and fruit trees nearby will not interfere, since diffused lighting is perfect for mushrooms. You only need to prepare the necessary substrate. To do this, you need to bring deadwood or branches of dead trees (linden, willow, birch or aspen) from the forest. You can also use the stumps of these trees, only chopped into small pieces. In early spring, all these wood blanks (in a wet state) should be placed in a room with a positive temperature (for example, in a cellar or basement) and abundantly saturated with mycelium. Lighting is optional for this procedure. When the mycelium takes root on the workpieces, and this will be evidenced by a large number of white threads on them, you can start preparing for planting.
First you need to make holes in the selected area, and then lay wood blanks in them. It is recommended to cover the bottom of the holes with a good layer of humus and a mixture of earth and sawdust. The main care for mushroom beds is timely and regular moisture.
The volume of irrigation water per square meter of area is at least 5 liters (in summer). Mandatory watering is required at least once every 7-10 days. The beds must be kept moist at all times.
When you start growing mushrooms in the spring and with proper care and maintenance of the beds, the first mushroom picking can please its owners at the end of summer - at the beginning of autumn. Experienced gardeners and gardeners advise not to rush to harvest in order to enable most of the mushrooms to grow and to compare their external characteristics. This is necessary in order to avoid accidental ingestion of inedible specimens. It is better to cut off the largest mushrooms with a large cap diameter.
There are several ways to grow oyster mushrooms. For example, you can organize entire mushroom plantations in large rooms with artificial lighting or grow them in a regular jar on a windowsill. But the above method is still the most optimal for lovers of summer cottages and gardens. Having grown oyster mushrooms on your own, you can be convinced once again of their nutritional value and great benefits. Oyster mushrooms are a worthy substitute for mushrooms.
Grow oyster mushrooms on tree stumps. The result is visible in the photo for the video !!!
Such an activity as going to the forest for mushrooms is very popular in our country. And if the principle of catching - release is gaining more and more popularity among amateur anglers, then mushroom pickers carry all their catch home. And it would be foolish to go into the forest for mushrooms and not cut a single one. But fans of a quiet hunt do not always have the opportunity to do what they love. More important and urgent matters are often distracted. But there is a way out. It is not necessary to spend your free time combing the forest, mushrooms can be planted and grown in your summer cottage and they are in no way inferior in quality to their forest relatives, and the quantity is guaranteed to be higher.
This article will just be devoted to how to start growing mushrooms such as oyster mushrooms on your own. Moreover, not only for their own needs, the cultivation of oyster mushrooms can be turned into a business that brings a stable income.
Growing oyster mushrooms on stumps
Today there are two types of artificial cultivation of oyster mushrooms, namely extensive and intense. The first method means growing oyster mushrooms, oyster mushrooms in natural conditions, and the second in specially designed rooms, which have all the conditions for the artificial cultivation of this type of mushrooms.
Currently, the extensive method of artificial cultivation of oyster mushrooms is used with great success in Italy, Germany and France, but this method has some drawbacks. And the most significant disadvantages are that the cultivation of oyster mushrooms by this method should take place in clearly defined climatic conditions, and the harvest is only seasonal. But, despite these disadvantages, this method of growing oyster mushrooms is still widely used today, since it has a number of only the most positive advantages. First of all, growing oyster mushrooms using this method is less costly than intensive, because there is no need to purchase special equipment. Secondly, this method of cultivation does not require compliance with specific rules, and that is why it does not take a lot of time and effort from a person.
There are many different ways of growing oyster mushrooms using the extensive method, which we will now consider with you. The first method is to grow oyster mushrooms on ordinary wood cuts.... As a substrate in this method of growing mushrooms, wood cuts of the required size are used. Oyster mushrooms can also be grown in natural conditions, for example, on stumps, bales of straw, branches, and even in a polythene bag, a box filled with chopped substrate, which should be slightly moistened. And also many people grow oyster mushrooms just in the open area. Indeed, for this method of growing mushrooms, you do not need to do anything serious, you just need to dig a small trench in which you put a slightly moistened mixture of chopped straw and mix it with wood flour, after which the prepared mixture becomes infected with oyster mushroom mycelium. The extensive method has existed for many years and has been used with great success both on a large industrial scale and in amateur cultivation. However, this method of growing mushrooms is less effective compared to the intensive method.
As a rule, the technology of growing mushrooms by an intensive method takes place in specially equipped rooms in which it will be possible to regulate the microclimate, since it is very important for the rapid growth of mushrooms. This method of growing mushrooms is widely used all over the world, because it is the most effective, and moreover, it has a lot of positive advantages.
First of all thanks to this method, mushrooms can be grown throughout the year, while obtaining sufficiently high yields.
Secondly this method provides a unique opportunity to use a wide variety of mechanisms, as well as to fully automate the entire process of growing mushrooms.
Thirdly if, when growing mushrooms, the entire technology of mushroom production was correctly followed, in this case the development cycle of fruit bodies will be significantly reduced, and will be only 8-10 weeks, and this suggests that up to 4 such cycles can be carried out in one year.
As the most important component - a substrate for growing oyster mushrooms, oyster mushrooms mainly use chopped straw of cereals, namely wheat, rye, rice, millet, oats and many other similar plant components. This substrate contains all the necessary components for the intensive growth and development of oyster mushrooms. Today mushroom growing is the most profitable business. Therefore, oyster mushroom is grown with great success not only on an industrial scale and at especially large factories, but also on small farms, as well as at home.
Currently, many people are interested in the question of how to make oyster mushroom mycelium at home, and in general, is it possible to make it yourself? And this question can be answered with confidence that the mycelium of oyster mushrooms at home can be done, the main thing is to know the basic rules, which must be followed in stages. Therefore, you do not have to spend money to purchase mushroom seeds, which you can make yourself, and at home.
First of all, a person who decided to independently make an oyster mushroom mycelium should prepare the cleanest room for a laboratory. The air humidity in the prepared room should be no more than 70%, and the temperature should be from 20 to 24 degrees. If the temperature in the room is unstable, you can maintain it with an ordinary electric heater. It is definitely worth noting that in no case should there be drafts in the room. And do not forget that the laboratory should be as clean as possible, so you need to regularly wet cleaning. Also, make sure that there is regular lighting above your desk.
In order to grow oyster mushroom mycelium, you need to purchase plastic containers of small depth. The next step is to prepare the necessary material for the job. To grow mycelium of oyster mushrooms, oyster mushrooms, you will need 15 identical test tubes with cotton stoppers and a storage rack, a 500 ml conical flask with a stopper and, of course, a beaker with a volume of 500 ml. In addition to all of the above, you will definitely need a bacteriological needle, ordinary tweezers, a medical scalpel, pipettes of various capacities, plastic petri dishes, an electric stove, an alcohol burner, and various disinfectants.
To form mycelium, take a small piece of fresh oyster mushroom and oyster mushroom and place it in a potato glucose agar nutrient base. Be sure to keep the room clean and regularly disinfect the work surface. And also do not forget to sterilize all tools before working with the culture of the mushroom on the burner.
The nutrient base must be thoroughly dissolved in boiling water in a flask. Then the dissolved nutrient base must be sterilized in tubes wrapped in foil and with closed lids.
The resulting composition is 10 ml. must be pipetted into sterile plastic cups. After the composition has cooled down a little, you need to put 3-4 small pieces of mushroom tissue in it, then carefully close the cups with lids and put for a couple of days in a dark place at room temperature. The end result of the work done will be a mycelium in the form of white fluff. But remember, before you cut the mushrooms into pieces, you must first thoroughly rinse and disinfect them. In addition, do not forget that you only need to cut the mushrooms with a sterile scalpel.
The next step is to get mycelium. To do this, you need to take high quality cereal grains and mix them with two parts of boiled water. Then the grains must be boiled for 15 minutes, after which they are thoroughly dried and mixed with 1.3% gypsum, as well as 0.3% calcium carbonate.
Now it remains for two-thirds to fill the jars with grains and sterilize, then put three pieces of culture medium with mycelium in each jar. And after about 2-3 weeks, the mycelium of oyster mushroom, oyster mushroom will grow significantly. As you can see, the technology of growing mycelium is simple and clear, the main thing is to adhere to all the above rules and you will succeed.
In 2002 I wanted to do growing oyster mushrooms... To do this, I re-read a huge amount of the necessary literature, and after that I underwent special training in paid courses for mushroom growers professionals in oyster mushroom.
And now a young businessman - a mushroom grower received a certificate and is ready to apply his knowledge and skills in business. To begin with, it was necessary to find the appropriate premises, this was the main problem. After running around the city in search of a suitable basement or garage, I came to the conclusion that those premises that suit me are either already occupied, or their rent will eat up all the expected profit. But it is not in my rules to despair, and I decided to grow mushrooms right in my apartment, which made all members of my family very upset.
I must say that myself the growing process is not very laborious, but the preparation of compost is quite a stressful process. If anyone does not know what it is, I will explain it briefly. Straw is taken and processed with boiling water, while, if the work is carried out in artisanal conditions, it is very hot and the humidity is crazy.
And so the work began to boil, at first I brought half a stack of straw into my two-room apartment, and then I began to park. To do this, I poured a certain part of the straw in the bathroom and poured boiling water over it. The approximate proportion of a bathtub floor of straw for four buckets of boiling water. The stuffiness was terrible, it seemed to me that even the parrot hated me. But now the work has come to an end, all the straw is steamed, the oyster mushroom mycelium is purchased, and you can start planting. Ten full-weight mushroom blocks, this is the result of my labors.At first I placed them in the bedroom, and at this time I equipped the shelves on the balcony. In two weeks everything was ready, the mushroom blocks were moved to the balcony. Since my balcony faces the sunny side, I had to shade the blocks with a suitable piece of plywood.
The mycelium grew rapidly, and now the first ovaries began to form. Now they had to be regularly sprayed with water so that the mushrooms did not dry out, and this procedure had to be done quite often. To facilitate the process of maintaining constant humidity, I covered already overgrown mushrooms with wet gauze, a very effective method. And now it's time to harvest oyster mushrooms, my finest hour. Sixteen kilos of beautiful mushrooms from ten mushroom blocks, this is my first result.
And how delicious they were in the pan! Now I grow mushrooms in completely different conditions, and in different quantities, but I remember the first harvest forever.
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So, we looked at how to grow mushrooms in your own dacha. In conclusion, let's learn a few important rules that will come in handy when it's time to pick mushrooms. Mushrooms should not be plucked - this can damage the mycelium to such an extent that it stops bearing fruit. You need to carefully cut them with a sharp knife near the very base of the leg.
Even if the recipe only needs a hat, cut everything to the root: the remaining leg will rot and this process will quickly cover the entire mycelium. It is not recommended to use overripe mushrooms - they accumulate harmful substances and this can happen even if your summer cottage is located far from businesses or highways. The harvested crop should be prepared or preserved as soon as possible.
It will not be difficult to choose the location of the mushroom farm; any dark and semi-dark place will do. Direct sunlight is contraindicated for oyster mushrooms. It is most convenient to create the necessary conditions in the country in the garden, or in the basement. If there is no shaded area, this is not a problem. An artificial canopy is also suitable for shading. This is especially true for uncut tree stumps that cannot be moved. The choice of timber for the farm is also very simple: any tree species will do. The stump can be both stationary and cut, with the ability to move to a convenient place.
The preferred chock size is 30-50 cm in height and 15-30 cm in diameter. Despite the fact that the freshness of the wood does not matter, it is most convenient to use freshly sawn material. It has the necessary moisture, unlike dry. If only dry logs are at hand, they will need to be soaked for 2-3 days. For these purposes, a bucket, basin, bathtub, or any other sufficiently capacious container is suitable. Did you know? Oyster mushrooms are not only delicious food, but also a very easy way to get rid of an unnecessary tree stump in the garden. In 2-3 years, the stump will turn into dust, making it unnecessary to use heavy equipment.
Oyster mushrooms on stumps.
The substrate acts as a soil on which mushrooms grow. It is best to use two main components for the substrate: cereal straw and sunflower husk. Wood sawdust is suitable as an additional material - the main thing is that they are not from conifers. You can also add a variety of nutritional supplements, such as soy or feather meal, brewer's grains, or malt sprouts. It is important to remember that the content of additional components should not exceed 10% of the total substrate. Planting and Careful Care When all the preparatory processes are completed, the most important stage comes - now you can finally plant the mushrooms.
However, in order to get the best harvest possible, you need to plant correctly. Sowing mycelium Mycelium is a kind of grain from which mushrooms grow. In total, there are several ways of seeding mycelium, but they are all similar in their principle. There is no need to make too thick a layer of mycelium. A thickness of 1.5–2 cm will suffice. Methods of sowing mycelium: In the hole of the stump. For this method, the most convenient way is to use a drill.
It is necessary to make holes with a diameter of 8-10 mm and a depth of 5-6 cm. If you do not have a drill, you can make cuts of the same depth instead of tunnels using a sharp tool - for example, an ax, or even a knife. In the resulting grooves, you need to place the mycelium and cover everything with moss or just scotch tape. To cut a bar. A disc 2-3 cm thick is cut from the stump, then mycelium is poured into the cut site. The disc is put back and secured with nails. Column of stumps. To do this, one tree trunk needs to be cut into several stumps. All the wooden blocks are again aligned, with a mycelium placed at each cut point.
Logs can be secured in any convenient way. For example, you can make a single seam that will be secured with nails. Care of mushrooms The most convenient way to care for oyster mushrooms is in a greenhouse or in a basement - in this case, the easiest way is to achieve the most optimal room temperature of + 14 ... + 15 ° С. However, this option is not always available. Therefore, it is better to focus on the most important thing - the moisture level. The constant moisture content of the wood is necessary in order to feed the mycelium, so care must be taken to ensure that the stumps do not dry out. For example, you can periodically water them with a hose.
New Zealand is so concerned about the local fauna that oyster mushrooms are banned. This type of mushroom is considered a parasite and is prohibited for import and cultivation in the country.
How to plant oyster mushrooms on stumps.
The harvest will begin to grow 1–1.5 months after sowing. In just one season, the farm will bear fruit several times. If the mycelium was set up in a basement or greenhouse, mushrooms can be picked all year round. In other cases, they are collected in all seasons, except for winter. It is very important to start picking immediately after the mushrooms are ripe, before the spores are released, as they quickly deteriorate after that. To understand that the crop is ready to be harvested, you need to pay attention to the leg. If its length is 4 cm or more, the harvest is ready. Mushrooms need to be removed by twisting, trying not to leave hemp, which will certainly rot or dry out.
Interested in how to grow mushrooms at home, many prefer the bag cultivation system (Figure 8). This method is really very convenient, as it allows you to save space in the room and harvest a rich crop with minimal labor costs.
Figure 8. Creating mushroom blocks for growing in bags
To do this, you will need large plastic bags that are filled with a nutrient medium (such as sawdust). Around the entire perimeter of the bag, slits no more than 2 cm long are made, and the mycelium is introduced through them. Through the holes, the substrate will be well ventilated, and the mycelium will receive enough air.
Otherwise, the technology remains the same, but harvesting in this case is very convenient. The mushrooms grow through the slots and can be simply cut off the bag. A second wave of fruiting bodies will soon grow in place of the cut.
You should not expect a large harvest in the first year. Only from the second year the plantation will begin to bear fruit steadily and will bear fruit for several years until the hemp crumbles to dust. The optimum temperature for the growth and maturation of mushrooms is considered to be in the range from + 16 to 22 degrees. For the winter, hemp can be wrapped in several layers of film and sprinkled with leaves, and if there is a warm basement, then it would be best to bring them there. In this case, the harvest of fresh mushrooms can be obtained in winter.
Oyster mushroom grows on stumps in bunches, so-called families. When harvesting, you must carefully cut off the entire mushroom family with a knife, without damaging the mycelium. Each bunch of mushrooms must be removed completely, without dividing it into parts and not leaving for later. Uncut mushrooms will still not grow further and will dry out quickly.
As you can see from the article, growing an oyster mushroom crop at a summer cottage is not such a difficult task. Mushrooms do not require special care and special knowledge. Compliance with the simplest rules will bring a decent harvest. And maybe, over time, a small hobby can turn into a source of income.