How to upgrade a potato variety: 5 ways


Potato varieties must be renewed every 5-6 years. Indeed, from year to year, the potato yield decreases, the tubers begin to be poorly stored, the susceptibility to diseases decreases, and the quality characteristics do not change for the better. The renewal can be carried out independently without spending a lot of money on the purchase of new seed potatoes.

There are five proven methods, each of which you can apply in your summer cottage or garden.

Method 1. Growing planting potatoes from seeds

The seed method of growing potatoes is rarely used. Some have forgotten that this vegetable has seeds. But after flowering, on many potato bushes, small green balls are formed, similar to unripe tomatoes. They contain potato seeds. With their help, you can grow planting potatoes.

First, the fruits must be collected in a cloth bag and hung in a well-lit and warm room until they are fully ripe. When the fruits are light green and softer, you can select seeds from them, rinse them thoroughly and leave to dry. By the way, you can buy any seeds in specialized stores without unnecessary hassle, only a pure variety, and not a hybrid one, is mandatory.

This method has many advantages:

  • Inexpensive seed price.
  • Seed germination persists for a long time (about 10 years) and does not require special storage conditions.
  • Seed potatoes are resistant to various diseases.

Of course, growing mini-tubers will take a lot of effort and patience, but the result is worth it. This challenging potato growing process will reward you with excellent planting stock for several seasons to come.

Method 2. Growing mini-potato tubers from a large tuber

This method is based on the cloning of potato tubers. The cells of the grown potatoes are used to form a new plant. This "scientific experiment" will require large potato tubers, from which we will grow small ones. They must be selected in the spring and lowered for the whole summer in a cool basement or cellar.

Throughout the summer season, tubers need high air humidity, spraying and low indoor temperatures. By about October-November, a strong root system with small potatoes will be formed on the potato tubers. It is an excellent planting material that is protected from all diseases.

All mini-tubers must be harvested, dried well and stored until the next planting season. Already next year, you will get an excellent harvest of the super super elite.

Method 3. Growing mini-potato tubers from cuttings

You can try to update the varieties by cuttings. To do this, you need to choose the strongest and healthiest potato bush during its summer active growth and development, mark it in the garden and wait for the end of flowering.

After that, we take the required number of branches from the bush and cut them into small cuttings (no more than 4 centimeters in length). At least one leaf should remain on each such cuttings. For cuttings, only the middle parts of the tops are used. Prepared cuttings must be soaked in a weak manganese solution (about 4 hours).

The site for planting cuttings should be selected in a shaded place, without direct sunlight. It is recommended to plant potato cuttings on a gloomy cloudy day or after sunset. The soil in the beds must first be fluffed and moistened. The distance between the beds should be at least 20 centimeters, and between the plants - about 3 centimeters.

When planting cuttings, it is very important to sprinkle them with soil so that the potato leaf is also covered with earth (approximately 60-70 percent). It should be upright.

Immediately after planting, a mulching layer is laid out on the beds and abundant watering is carried out. After 15-20 days, the tops will turn yellow and dry, and the formation of a mini-tuber will begin in the soil. The tuber will receive all the necessary nutrients for its development from the leaves. Two more weeks will pass, and it will be possible to dig out the cuttings with grown tubers.

Mini-tubers grown in this way must be disinfected (in a weak manganese solution), dried thoroughly in the sun and folded for storage in bags made of natural fabric. They will be perfectly preserved until the next planting season.

Method 4. Growing seed potatoes from the tops of tubers

This method is as simple as the previous one. The tops of the potato tubers will now be used. The largest potatoes of the best varieties are selected at harvest time (late summer - early autumn) and set aside separately from others for storage and germination until spring.

In the spring, all these tubers are pruned - the tops, along with the sprouts, are cut by about one third. All these trimmed parts are laid out in sawdust, sprayed abundantly with water and left until germination. The remaining parts of the tubers can be used for planting in the ground in the standard way.

After about three weeks, the potato tops will sprout and take root. This means they are ready to be planted in open beds. Tubers are planted at a distance of at least thirty centimeters from each other at a depth of about five centimeters.

Method 5. Growing seed potatoes from sprouts

If you want to renew the variety very quickly, in a short time, then this method is the most suitable. More than forty bushes can be grown from one potato tuber in this way.

Take a closer look at the sprouted potato tubers. They differ from each other by sprouts. Some sprouts are strong and juicy (green), while others are pale and half-withered. And this is because the former grew in the light (light), and the latter in the shadow (shadow). Both types of sprouts can be used for planting. They are planted either directly into the ground in the beds, or in individual pots.

Shoots grown in the light should be planted together with the rudimentary roots and only one at a time. The shoots formed in the shade will have to be cut into small pieces, each of which should have a bud. Both types of sprouts are covered with soil for about two-thirds.

High-quality soil is of great importance for growing plants in this way. It should contain all the necessary amount of nutrients, so you cannot do without top dressing. Fertilizers are applied once a week. It is advisable to feed the potatoes one by one: one week - with herbal or ash infusion, and the other - with vermicompost infusion.

When harvesting sprout potatoes, choose the best tubers and save them for the next planting.

The selection of planting material for the next year is recommended to be carried out carefully. Spot and mark the strongest, healthiest potato bushes throughout the summer season. When harvesting, it is necessary to leave not only large specimens from such bushes, but even the smallest potatoes. Then it will be necessary to update the varieties only after 6-7 years. Get rid of the tradition of leaving only the smallest potato tubers for planting. With such planting material, it will be necessary to update potato varieties every 2-3 years.


If you independently receive exchange potatoes, you can:

  • save on buying new material
  • get clean, non-contaminated samples
  • avoid cheating in the market.

There are the following methods of growing exchangeable material:

    Seminal. While the plant is in bloom, green, round seeds grow on its stems. To grow tubers from them, the fruits must be harvested after ripening and stored in small bags in a warm, light basement. Ripe fruits become lighter and softer, after which the seeds need to be released. Potatoes should be grown using a seedling method - the seeds are planted in small containers filled with loose earth. To improve the growth and condition of seedlings, they need to be dived, i.e. transplant from a smaller container to a larger one. After the seedlings have germinated, they must be transplanted into the garden. Further care is the same as for the rest of the potatoes (hilling, watering and weed removal). Such specimens of the variety are not infected with viruses and diseases.

  • Mini tubers from large potatoes. The method consists in growing new vegetables from an old crop. To do this, it is necessary to select the best fruits of the desired variety and store them in a ventilated room, constantly check the humidity, treatment for diseases is allowed. Closer to September, the potatoes will sprout, and small new fruits are formed on the sprouts, they must be collected and left until spring planting.
  • Cuttings. With this method, after the flowers fall off, you need to choose the best-looking bush and cut the stems, then divide them into parts, it is important to leave a leaf on the stems. In the cuttings, the middle part should be left, removing everything else, the resulting branches should be soaked for 4 hours in manganese. Cuttings should be planted in a shady section of the garden so that direct rays do not fall on it. 3 weeks after planting, a leaf tuber is formed in the axillary bud. After a month, the plants can be harvested, the tubers can be disinfected, dried and greened in the light. Keep potatoes in bags before planting.
  • In the spring, the top of the selected potatoes is cut off and placed in wet sawdust for germination. Every 3 days, the sawdust should be watered with a little water. After 20 days, the sprouted potatoes are planted in the holes. In the fall, the entire crop is harvested before the next planting.

  • Seed potatoes from sprouts. This method is suitable for fast variety renewal, because grows up to 45 bushes from 1 sample. The sprouts must be torn from the fruit along with the roots and planted in a container with earth, like seedlings. Plants need to be fertilized with nutrients after 7 days. In autumn, all tubers must be selected for planting.
  • Experienced gardeners recommend choosing an exchange fund from healthy plants and fruits. With this method, the samples of the variety will have to be changed after 7 years. If you choose small potatoes from the entire crop, then you need to update the potato variety in 2 years.


    How to upgrade a potato variety: 5 ways

    There are five proven methods, each of which you can apply in your summer cottage or garden.

    How to upgrade a potato variety: 5 ways

    Method 1. Growing planting potatoes from seeds

    The seed method of growing potatoes is rarely used. Some have forgotten that this vegetable has seeds. But after flowering, on many potato bushes, small green balls are formed, similar to unripe tomatoes. They contain potato seeds. With their help, you can grow planting potatoes.

    First, the fruits must be collected in a cloth bag and hung in a well-lit and warm room until they are fully ripe. When the fruits are light green and softer, you can select seeds from them, rinse them thoroughly and leave to dry. By the way, you can buy any seeds in specialized stores without unnecessary hassle, only a pure variety, and not a hybrid one, is mandatory.

    This method has many advantages:

    Seed germination persists for a long time (about 10 years) and does not require special storage conditions.
    Seed potatoes are resistant to various diseases.

    Of course, growing mini-tubers will take a lot of effort and patience, but the result is worth it. This challenging potato growing process will reward you with excellent planting stock for several seasons to come.

    Method 2. Growing mini-potato tubers from a large tuber

    This method is based on the cloning of potato tubers. The cells of the grown potatoes are used to form a new plant. This "scientific experiment" will require large potato tubers, from which we will grow small ones. They must be selected in the spring and lowered for the whole summer in a cool basement or cellar.

    Throughout the summer season, tubers need high air humidity, spraying and low indoor temperatures. By about October-November, a strong root system with small potatoes will be formed on the potato tubers. It is an excellent planting material that is protected from all diseases.

    All mini-tubers must be harvested, dried well and stored until the next planting season. Already next year, you will get an excellent harvest of the super super elite.

    Method 3. Growing mini-potato tubers from cuttings

    You can try to update the varieties by cuttings. To do this, you need to choose the strongest and healthiest potato bush during its summer active growth and development, mark it in the garden and wait for the end of flowering.

    After that, we take the required number of branches from the bush and cut them into small cuttings (no more than 4 centimeters in length). At least one leaf should remain on each such cuttings. For cuttings, only the middle parts of the tops are used. Prepared cuttings must be soaked in a weak manganese solution (about 4 hours).

    The site for planting cuttings should be selected in a shaded place, without direct sunlight. It is recommended to plant potato cuttings on a gloomy cloudy day or after sunset. The soil in the beds must first be fluffed and moistened. The distance between the beds should be at least 20 centimeters, and between the plants - about 3 centimeters.

    When planting cuttings, it is very important to sprinkle them with soil so that the potato leaf is also covered with earth (approximately 60-70 percent). It should be upright.

    Immediately after planting, a mulching layer is laid out on the beds and abundant watering is carried out. After 15-20 days, the tops will turn yellow and dry, and the formation of a mini-tuber will begin in the soil. The tuber will receive all the necessary nutrients for its development from the leaves. Two more weeks will pass, and it will be possible to dig out the cuttings with grown tubers.

    Mini-tubers grown in this way must be disinfected (in a weak manganese solution), dried thoroughly in the sun and folded for storage in bags made of natural fabric. They will be perfectly preserved until the next planting season.

    Method 4. Growing seed potatoes from the tops of tubers

    This method is as simple as the previous one. The tops of the potato tubers will now be used. The largest potatoes of the best varieties are selected at harvest time (late summer - early autumn) and set aside separately from others for storage and germination until spring.

    In the spring, all these tubers are pruned - the tops, along with the sprouts, are cut by about one third. All these trimmed parts are laid out in sawdust, sprayed abundantly with water and left until germination. The remaining parts of the tubers can be used for planting in the ground in the standard way.

    After about three weeks, the potato tops will sprout and take root. This means they are ready to be planted in open beds. Tubers are planted at a distance of at least thirty centimeters from each other at a depth of about five centimeters.

    Method 5. Growing seed potatoes from sprouts

    If you want to renew the variety very quickly, in a short time, then this method is the most suitable. More than forty bushes can be grown from one potato tuber in this way.

    Take a closer look at the sprouted potato tubers. They differ from each other by sprouts. Some sprouts are strong and juicy (green), while others are pale and half-withered. And this is because the former grew in the light (light), and the latter in the shadow (shadow). Both types of sprouts can be used for planting. They are planted either directly into the ground in the beds, or in individual pots.

    Shoots grown in the light should be planted together with the rudimentary roots and only one at a time. The shoots formed in the shade will have to be cut into small pieces, each of which should have a bud. Both types of sprouts are covered with soil for about two-thirds.

    High-quality soil is of great importance for growing plants in this way. It should contain all the necessary amount of nutrients, so you cannot do without top dressing. Fertilizers are applied once a week. It is advisable to feed the potatoes one by one: one week - with herbal or ash infusion, and the other - with vermicompost infusion.

    When harvesting sprout potatoes, choose the best tubers and save them for the next planting.

    The selection of planting material for the next year is recommended to be carried out carefully. Spot and mark the strongest, healthiest potato bushes throughout the summer season. When harvesting, it is necessary to leave not only large specimens from such bushes, but even the smallest potatoes. Then it will be necessary to update the varieties only after 6-7 years. Get rid of the tradition of leaving only the smallest potato tubers for planting. With such planting material, it will be necessary to update potato varieties every 2-3 years.


    Method 2: growing minitubers from a large tuber

    In this method, it is necessary in the spring to select the largest tubers of the variety that requires renewal.

    Selection of potatoes. Illustration for this article is used under a standard license © dachnyedela.ru

    These fruits must be folded into a box and placed in the cellar for 4-5 months, periodically sprinkling the potatoes.

    After 3 months, the tubers will acquire their own root system and the very minitubers will appear on their roots, which must be dried and planted in the ground next spring.

    Method 3: minitubers from cuttings

    To grow minitubers from cuttings, after flowering at the largest bush, cut off the ends and beginnings of cuttings, and then cut the rest into equal stems from 4 to 5 cm long.

    It is important that there is at least 1 leaf on each cutting. Cuttings should be planted in moist soil in the shade of other plants. After the leaves of the cuttings dry up, you can wait a week and collect your minitubers from the cuttings.

    Method 4: minitubers from the tops of the stems

    This method is extremely similar to the third, because in it, after flowering, it is also necessary to cut off the tops of the potato stalks and plant them in wet sawdust and leave them in the cellar.

    After 3 months, the root system of the apex will grow, and mini-tubers will begin to form on it, which will need to be dried and stored in a tissue bag until spring sowing.

    Method 5: growing minitubers from sprouts

    With this method of cultivation, after the first sprouts of potatoes have appeared, you will need to choose the brightest and thickest ones and, carefully separating them from the potatoes, plant them in a separate pot.

    Just as when growing mini-tubers from cuttings, after the leaves wilted, you can harvest your mini-tubers.It does not matter which method of growing mini-tubers is chosen, because each of them gives the maximum chance of renewing the potato variety. This means that it will improve its qualities.


    HOW TO UPDATE A VARIETY OF POTATO: 5 WAYS

    It is no secret that over time, potatoes degenerate: their varietal qualities are lost, resistance to diseases decreases, productivity decreases, keeping quality deteriorates. And this happens, unfortunately, rather quickly. On the good, every 5-7 years, the gardener needs to completely renew the potato varieties on his site.

    But really high-quality seed potatoes (mini-tubers, superelite and elite) cost a lot of money. For this reason, we need to learn how to update the varieties of our potatoes ourselves and use super-elite tubers "of our own production" for planting. Today we offer you to familiarize yourself with five ways to update potato planting material. First, let's understand the terminology used by potato growers to determine the age of planting potatoes.

    So, in the first year after growing from seeds (or meristems), mini tubers... In the second year - super-super elite, for 3 years - super elite, for 4 years - elite, for 5 years - first reproduction etc.

    What we buy on the market is at best the third reproduction, and most likely the seventh or eighth. Not surprisingly, after a couple of years, the new variety is no longer distinguishable from the old one. Therefore, everyone who grows potatoes on their site needs to try and master at least one of the ways to obtain high-quality tubers.

    Method 1: growing planting potatoes from seeds

    Over the years of growing potatoes from tubers, we have forgotten that potatoes have seeds. They are formed in the very "green tomatoes" that some varieties start after flowering. If you have one and are determined to try seed propagation, you can wait for them to ripen and prepare your own seeds. For this, the fruits are collected and suspended in cloth bags in the light in a warm room for some time. Ripe berries should become lighter and softer, then you can choose seeds from them, rinse and dry. If you don't have your own seeds, it doesn't matter, the seeds are sold in stores. Moreover, it is better to buy varieties, not hybrids. The former retain their properties longer.

    Why is growing from seed good? Seeds are much cheaper than mini-tubers, do not require special storage conditions and remain viable for 6-10 years. Potatoes grown from seeds are completely free from viruses and diseases. Once I suffered with seedlings - and received high-quality planting material for five years in advance.

    Yes, you probably have to suffer. Getting mini-tubers from seeds is not an easy process. Read more about seed propagation of potatoes in the article: HOW TO GROW POTATO FROM SEED

    Method 2: growing mini-potato tubers from a large tuber

    This and all subsequent methods are based on the use of the meristem - a kind of plant growth point, a group of cells that is capable of rapidly and intensively dividing. Roughly speaking, meristem reproduction is cloning, growing a new plant from the cells of the previous one. Welcome to the laboratory! We will clone the potatoes.

    Getting mini tubers from large ones is perhaps the easiest way to renew seed potatoes. Our task is as follows: in the spring, select the best tubers of those varieties that require renewal, and place them in the cellar for the whole summer. Monitor humidity, spray from time to time. By the fall, the tubers will sprout and have a root system, on which small potatoes will appear. These are mini-tubers - clean planting material without any "sores". They need to be collected, dried and stored until next spring. Mini-tubers planted in the ground will yield a super-super-elite crop. And so on ...

    Method 3: growing mini-potato tubers from cuttings

    Another way to get meristem tubers is by cuttings. In the summer, we celebrate the best, healthiest potato bush on the potato garden and we are sure to wait for it to bloom. It makes no sense to take cuttings before. After flowering, we cut off a few branches of the tops and cut the stem into several cuttings 2-4 centimeters long. The main thing is that there is a leaf on each handle. We discard the upper and lower parts of the stem, and soak the cuttings from the middle for four hours in a pink solution of potassium permanganate.

    On a cloudy day or in the evening, we plant cuttings in a garden bed. The bed should be in the shade, out of direct sunlight. We plant the cuttings so that the leaf is in an upright position and is covered with earth by two-thirds (the axillary bud of the leaf should be at a depth of about one centimeter). The distance between the cuttings should be three centimeters, and between the rows - twenty centimeters.

    Mulch and spill the bed with cuttings. After 2-3 weeks, the leaves will wither and turn yellow, and a leaf tuber will begin to form in the bosom - a mini-potato, which has grown due to the outflow of nutrients from the leaves. A month after planting, cuttings with tubers are dug up, mini-tubers are disinfected in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, dried, greened in the light, and then stored in fabric bags until the next season.

    Method 4: growing seed potatoes from the tops of the tubers

    Another simple way to update a potato variety is to plant the tops of the tubers. In order for the seed material to turn out to be of high quality, it is necessary to select the largest, healthy tubers of each variety in the fall.

    In spring, all the selected tubers should be cut off the tops with the apical bud (about a third of the tuber) and placed in wet sawdust for germination (the rest of the tuber can be planted like regular potatoes for food). Once every 2-3 days, the sawdust is slightly moistened with water.

    After about 20 days, the tops will sprout and the first roots. Now they can be planted in a garden bed to a depth of 4-5 centimeters. In autumn, all tubers grown from the tops should be selected for seeds.

    Method 5: growing seed potatoes from sprouts

    This method is good in that it allows you to grow up to 45 bushes from one potato tuber, which is very important for rapid varietal renewal.

    Potato sprouts are light and shade. Light sprouts - strong green - appear when the tuber germinates in the light. Shadow sprouts - frail, pale ones - are the ones that are usually cut off when taking potatoes from the cellar. Both those and other sprouts can be used for planting. Sprouts can be planted in pots (like seedlings) or directly into the ground.

    Light sprouts are unscrewed from the tuber together with the root buds and planted one at a time, deepening by two-thirds. Shadow sprouts are cut so that each part has a bud, and buried in the soil, leaving no more than a centimeter on the surface.

    The most important thing when growing potatoes from sprouts is a nutritious soil. These plants do not have a mother tuber from which to get food, so they need to be fed at least once a week. To do this, it is best to alternate infusion of herbs, infusion of ash and infusion of vermicompost. In the fall, all potatoes from the best sprouted bushes should be left for seed.

    In general, this is exactly how it is necessary to select all planting potatoes: put tags near the best and healthiest bushes and select all potatoes for seeds (even the smallest ones) from only these bushes. With such a selection, the variety renewal of potatoes will be required no more than once every 5-7 years, and with our traditional method - to dump all the potatoes in a heap and choose the smaller one for seeds - the varieties need to be renewed almost every two years.

    We wish you success and big harvests!


    Method 4: grow potatoes from sprouts

    We have already introduced you to the easiest way to update potatoes, and now we want to share the fastest. With its help, up to 40 young plants can be obtained from one potato tuber. For this you need sprouted tubers.

    For sprouting, it is best to use mid-season potato tubers. They are planted in boxes with universal soil, buried 3/4 of the length. Soon, sprouts will begin to grow, which are broken off and planted in separate pots. The sprouts can be separated from the tubers when they reach a length of 5-7 cm. When planting, they are also buried 3/4 of their length.

    You can break off the sprouts for rooting from one tuber 2-3 times, and in some cases more. When young plants take root, they can be planted in a garden bed, where they begin to build up the root system and form tubers.

    Method advantages

    • The method is good when you need to quickly multiply potatoes of some valuable variety.
    • The yield of potatoes grown from sprouts is not inferior in volume to the yield obtained by planting tubers.

    Disadvantages of the method

    • The only drawback is that a large area will be required for planting sprouts of several orders, which is not feasible in all situations.


    Method 5. Growing seed potatoes from sprouts

    If you want to renew the variety very quickly, in a short time, then this method is the most suitable. More than forty bushes can be grown from one potato tuber in this way.

    Take a closer look at the sprouted potato tubers. They differ from each other by sprouts. Some sprouts are strong and juicy (green), while others are pale and half-withered. And this is because the former grew in the light (light), and the latter in the shadow (shadow). Both types of sprouts can be used for planting. They are planted either directly into the ground in the beds, or in individual pots.

    Shoots grown in the light should be planted together with the rudimentary roots and only one at a time. The shoots formed in the shade will have to be cut into small pieces, each of which should have a bud. Both types of sprouts are covered with soil for about two-thirds.

    High-quality soil is of great importance for growing plants in this way. It should contain all the necessary amount of nutrients, so you cannot do without top dressing. Fertilizers are applied once a week. It is advisable to feed the potatoes one by one: one week - with herbal or ash infusion, and the other - with vermicompost infusion.

    When harvesting sprout potatoes, choose the best tubers and save them for the next planting.

    The selection of planting material for the next year is recommended to be carried out carefully. Spot and mark the strongest, healthiest potato bushes throughout the summer season. When harvesting, it is necessary to leave not only large specimens from such bushes, but even the smallest potatoes. Then it will be necessary to update the varieties only after 6-7 years. Get rid of the tradition of leaving only the smallest potato tubers for planting. With such planting material, it will be necessary to update potato varieties every 2-3 years.


    Watch the video: Sprouting Potatoes Everything Youll Want to Know!


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