Every gardener knows that caring for fruit trees is a responsible business. After all, you need to take care of them not only in the summer, but also in the autumn. The hot summer has passed, and the trees need moisture more than ever. In addition, autumn is not always rich in rainy days, so needed by trees. There are many other reasons why trees need watering in the fall.
Remember the most important rule: the more moisture in the soil, the better the fruit trees grow. Experienced gardeners advise to water the trees during the growing season, then next year the condition of trees and shrubs will be at a height. Due to long-term watering, they will be enriched with vitamins and nutrients. Moreover, it will be easier for plants to survive the cold, the number of fruits for the next year will increase and the root system will not freeze out. In other words, watering trees in autumn is preparation for the winter period, because, as a rule, moist soil freezes less.
As for transplanted and young plants, they need to be given more attention. The reason is the fact that the root has not yet taken root in the trees or shrubs.
If we neglect the autumn watering of trees, individual branches may dry out, especially the risk increases in the cold period. Another disadvantage can be sunburn of tree bark.
What is the best time to start watering? How?
Watering trees in autumn, in other words, is called moisture charging. It is carried out in those places of the site where natural moisture gets the least. First of all, columnar or dwarf trees require watering, since their roots are close enough to the soil surface. Such plants have a risk of freezing the root system - they need to be watered abundantly and in a timely manner.
Typically, recharge irrigation is carried out in October and until mid-November. In September, at least at the beginning of the month, it is not advisable to water the plants, as they may start to grow and will not be able to overwinter.
In the middle lane, watering is carried out from mid-October. In hot regions - from October to November.
As for the amount of water, then the size and age of the plants must be taken into account. Currants, honeysuckle, blackberries require three to five buckets of water. For trees four to seven years old, five to ten buckets are usually used.
When watering plants from a hose, you need to set the watering time for 10-15 minutes several times a day. The stable amount of moisture for trees is 60-90 liters per square meter.
When calculating how much water needs to be added for each plant, it is important to take into account the soil moisture in a particular area. You can check this in the following way: take a small lump of earth and squeeze it in your palm. If it does not crumble, then you need to water the soil less, but more often, several times a day. In dry autumn, especially in September, it is better to double the amount of watering.
Remember that the root system of trees will absorb as much moisture as it needs. Even if you water the plants more than necessary, they will not suffer from this. But it is better to water in moderation, especially in September, when trees and shrubs are just moving away from the summer season.
It is necessary to dig up the soil around the plants so that the earth is enriched with oxygen and the absorption of water is carried out faster.
There are several methods for watering fruit trees and shrubs in the fall. Let us consider two main ones at which the most optimal moisture enrichment of the root system is carried out.
First. Around the crown of the tree, that is, along the perimeter, you need to dig a small hole 10-15 cm deep and pour water there. If you prefer to water the plants with a hose, this is the best method. Since the hose can be installed in the desired position and the water will fill the hole. After watering and absorbing water, the ditch must be buried with earth.
The second method is underground watering of plants. It is best applied when the root is close enough to the soil. Around each tree, it is necessary to make wells, the diameter of which should be 10-15 cm, and the depth of 50-60 cm. The well itself should be filled with pieces of brick, crushed stone or coarse sand. And through these fillers to water trees, you can also apply any kind of fertilizer. It is thanks to this method that the elements of phosphorus and potassium freely enter the root. At the same time, no crust remains on the surface, and the soil continues to be enriched with oxygen. Usually, experienced gardeners recommend using this method in September - thanks to the sand and gravel filter, the optimal amount of moisture is supplied to the plant root system. But for young, newly planted plants, the first watering method is recommended.
In winter, the holes made must be covered with some kind of fertilizer or peat, otherwise there is a risk of freezing.
The first is to count on rainy days in the fall. Raindrops can only penetrate forty centimeters into the soil, and this is not enough for fruit trees. Therefore, it is worth additionally watering plants and even shrubs.
You should also not resort to podzimny watering on heavy clay soil and lowlands. This method will be appropriate in forest and podzolic soil.
Of course, excessive moisture levels will not have a beneficial effect on plant growth in spring. Set a time frame and amount of water per day. To achieve the optimal ratio of water to soil, test how much wetted the soil is.
Many neglect garden compost, but in vain. By combining top dressing and compost from sawdust and straw, you thereby protect the root system for the winter.
In summer, we always expect a rich harvest of apples, pears and other fruits. Their quality directly depends on how you care for the trees in the fall. It is at this time, by watering the plants, that we give them immunity to different weather conditions. The soil saturated with air and moisture allows the root system to develop for the better. Thus, increasing the quality of the fruit harvest.
The video describes in detail how to quickly prepare compost from grass in a regular barrel.
It is not enough to simply pour water from a watering can or a hose onto the trunks. Watering is most effective through circular grooves, which are made according to the diameter of the crown of a tree or bush. In this way, even accidental or rainwater that has fallen into the near-trunk circle will not be lost. It will drain into a groove between the trunk and the bottom.If the ground is covered with sod, for the same purpose, wells with a diameter of about 10 cm are arranged around.
1) It is better to water the garden in the evening. Water evaporates slowly at night and therefore penetrates deeper into the soil
2) It is necessary to use warm settled water or rainwater
3) Do not allow water to fall on the root collar of a tree or bush
4) It is better to water sparingly, but with plenty of water. The main thing is to get the entire root-containing layer wet.
It is necessary to water more abundantly those trees that should give a large harvest. But watering just before harvesting causes the fruits to fall and crack.
Apricots, cherries and plums need to be watered less frequently than apple and pear. But it is necessary to ensure that there is not too much moisture: for example, pears suffer from an excess of excess water. The final watering is carried out in late autumn (during the period of leaf fall).
How to care for grapes in the fall, what work needs to be done on the plantation, and in what sequence. Let's talk about this.
Even a novice gardener understands that the ripening of the crop requires a high yield of nutrients from the plant. It spends all its energy on filling the bunches. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that the vine is not overloaded. Otherwise, the plant will leave in the winter weakened, which will lead to its freezing.
This is especially true for grape varieties with late ripening. After all, they have little time to prepare for winter. Some of the bunches will simply have to be cut off if, according to forecasters, a sudden cold snap is foreseen.
Abundant watering of the grapes is needed when the bunches ripen. But excessive zeal is inappropriate, as cracking of the berries may begin. And this, in turn, negatively affects the taste and marketability of grapes.
Providing proper care of the vineyard in the fall, watering is not recommended to be ignored, especially if there is no rainfall. The soil under the vine should be moist enough to the depth of the root system. In this case, the plant is better prepared for winter.
Of course, the choice of the timing of irrigation and the amount of moisture during the autumn work on the vineyard will depend not only on precipitation. Here, the composition of the soil, the direction and strength of the wind, the air temperature in autumn, as well as the depth of the groundwater are of great importance.
Plants should leave well saturated with water during the winter. In the fall, many gardeners gird the grape bushes with grooves, then the water will go as intended - into the root system.
Each watering in the vineyard (in autumn too) should be accompanied by loosening of the soil. This will provide oxygen to the roots and allow moisture to stay in the soil longer. For the same purpose, mulching of the trunk circle is carried out in preparation for the winter of the grape plantation.
It's no secret that grapes are grown in one place for no more than 6 years. But even during this time, if you do not carry out top dressing, the soil is greatly depleted, the plants weaken, they stop yielding. Even in one season, the vine draws a large amount of trace elements from the soil.
What needs to be done during autumn care to restore fertility when preparing grapes for wintering and to form the future harvest:
The fall mineral diet can be replenished in two ways:
Both activities related to plant nutrition are required when preparing a vineyard for winter. After all, at this time the harvest of the next season is laid. The better you feed the grapes before sheltering for the winter, the higher the yield will be, and the fruits themselves are tastier and more aromatic.
They take care of the vine, carry out top dressing not only in the fall. They are performed periodically during the entire vegetative period. When carrying out foliar dressing, they simultaneously take care of the fight against pests and diseases. Plants are fed in the evening when the air temperature drops. At this time, the stomata on the leaves are open, and the grapes better absorb nutrients. In addition, the absence of the sun protects the plants from possible burns when feeding on the leaves.
The last foliar dressing of grapes is carried out in the fall after harvesting and pruning, so that in winter the plants feel protected. The nutrients accumulated in the root system of the vine contribute to the formation of buds, the rapid ripening of the shoots.
First, let's figure out why grapes are pruned in autumn:
Novice gardeners interested in the peculiarities of care are concerned about the time frame for pruning the vine in the fall. Immediately, we note that the care procedure must be performed when there are no leaves left on the grapes, that is, the time of rest comes. This means that sap flow stops, as does photosynthesis.
Not a single experienced gardener will be able to name the exact timing of the grape operation. Everything will depend on the region, climatic conditions and the time of the onset of winter. The main thing is to have time to carry out the autumn pruning of grapes before the first freeze and the night temperatures drop to 0 degrees. Otherwise, the vine will break during operation due to fragility.
You need to work with a sharp pruner so that splits and bark bites do not form. After pruning, all cuts must be treated with garden varnish to avoid infection of the grapes.
Grape care in the fall should be comprehensive. In addition to pruning, watering and feeding, plants need to be disinfected, to destroy spores of fungal diseases and pests. Otherwise, after the winter dormancy on the grapes, there may be an outbreak of diseases and an invasion of harmful insects that overwintered under cover.
It is not worth neglecting chemicals when caring for grapes in autumn, since only biological treatment will not give the desired result.
Preparations for the rehabilitation of grape vines during autumn care:
When the leaves have flown from the plants and all the necessary measures have been taken to care for the grape plantings in the autumn, it is necessary to take care of the shelter of the plants for the winter. Usually, these works fall on the end of September and beginning of October, depending on climatic conditions and the degree of cold snap. The structure of the shelter must provide protection of the grapes from precipitation.
You should not rush to "tightly" cover the landings. Otherwise, the root system will shake out. There must be vents for air circulation. At first, the shelter works to maintain more or less stable temperatures around the root system. The fact is that warming often returns during this autumn period. Therefore, a light shelter is first installed over the grapes in the fall. But the structure must be mobile, so that in the event of a sharp cold snap, it can reliably insulate the landings.
Young grapes especially need shelter for the winter: planted in autumn and annual plants. We will try to briefly tell you how to protect them from freezing. Here's the easiest way:
Recommendations of experienced gardeners for autumn work in the vineyard, see the video:
Crassula, like many plants growing in arid climates, has the characteristic feature of accumulating moisture in thick, fleshy leaves. for a long time and evenly spend it to ensure life.
Therefore, the fat woman does not need frequent and abundant watering.
The amount of water consumed by a tree in room conditions depends on the following factors:
The need for the first watering on moisture-consuming soils usually occurs at the end of June - the first half of July. At this time, in fruiting trees, the end of shoot growth is usually observed. It is important that the growth of shoots stops not because of the dryness of the soil, but due to biological characteristics. In this case, subsequent rains or watering do not cause secondary growth of shoots. In summer varieties, watering in early July improves the conditions for fruit pouring. Rainfall in June (30-35 mm) can replace the next irrigation, since there are still moisture reserves in the soil, while at the end of July and August, such rains have little effect on the moisture reserve.
The second garden irrigation is carried out 3-4 weeks after the first (early August). This watering creates favorable conditions for pouring fruits of autumn varieties, their formation in winter. It coincides with the end of the summer harvest.
The third watering is recommended in early September. It provides favorable conditions for the filling of winter varieties, autumn root growth and preparation of plants for winter. For summer varieties, September watering may not be required, since their need for moisture during this period is somewhat reduced.
On light soils and in dry years, the first watering may be required earlier - in early June, and the next three at about the same time. For cherries, as well as for summer varieties of apple trees, September watering may not be required. Plum is more demanding on moisture than cherry, so its fruiting trees usually require the same number of watering as an apple tree.
Podzimny (moisture charging) watering is carried out in October. Gardens that have received regular watering throughout the growing season usually do not need sub-winter watering. During this period, for better ripening, some moisture deficit is allowed in individual soil layers. In addition, they will accumulate precipitation in the autumn-winter and spring periods. It is carried out in dry autumn with a strong drying out of the soil. Podwinter watering is sometimes required in non-irrigated gardens in order to save abundantly fruitful trees of valuable, but insufficiently winter-hardy winter varieties from winter drying and freezing. In this case, small water sources (ponds, lakes) are used to organize irrigation and they are carried out locally in the near-trunk circles. Podwinter irrigation improves the watering of tissues, increases the flow of heat from the lower non-freezing horizons, increases the heat capacity of the soil and thereby improves the conditions for overwintering plants.
It is impossible to allow the alternation of abundant watering with excessive drying of the soil, that is, irrigate irregularly, from time to time. Observations show that fruit trees do better even without irrigation than when irrigated irregularly. This is explained by the fact that with sharp fluctuations in humidity, the direction of physiological and biochemical processes in plants, the rhythm of the passage of phenophases, is shaken. This is why irrigation is sometimes not very effective. If fruit trees grow in conditions of frequent lack of moisture, then they seem to adapt to this, which was discussed above (they develop a powerful root system, a corresponding type of leaf apparatus with a reduced consumption of moisture for evaporation, etc.).
Therefore, without proper watering, the garden can grow, and intensive gardening requires regular irrigation, without which it is impossible to obtain annual high yields.
The following describes how to water fruit tree seedlings.
It is necessary to water the garden area abundantly, otherwise the “local residents” will only lose their strength. Watering of adult plants should be carried out in such a way that water penetrates 1-1.5 m.The minimum indicator of liquid penetration into the ground is 60-70 cm.
To saturate a young tree planted this year or last year, you need at least 4 buckets of water. A culture of 10-15 years old requires 5-7 buckets, and older ones - about 10.
Before the procedure, it is necessary to take into account the type of soil prevailing on the site. In the case when the groundwater is high, poor drainage, you need to approach the application of the liquid carefully. The depth of humidification should not exceed 1 m.
With prolonged autumn precipitation, it is customary to wet only the upper layers of the soil. The correct timing of watering is determined empirically. In most cases, gardeners start watering the trees after most of the foliage has fallen off. However, there are a number of circumstances that prevent this event. At the end of autumn, not all summer residents can afford to leave the city, and all communication devices, hoses and pumps are hidden in outbuildings.
It is problematic to name the exact date when it is best to water. In mid-latitudes, the onset of winter is unpredictable, since sometimes snow falls in early November, and the first night frosts occur in October. However, sometimes the season is warm and individual plants will bloom again.
The volumes of liquid for the treatment of garden trees are calculated taking into account the following nuances:
There is an average norm - 50-100 liters per 1 m² of area. Experienced gardeners are advised to soak the soil under an adult crop 1.5-2 m deep.
When choosing a watering method, you can try digging pipes into the ground and watering the plants with them.
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