Honey mushrooms are one of the most popular mushrooms, since they can not only be collected in the forest, but also grown independently in your country house or balcony. Summer and winter varieties of honey agaric are best suited for breeding at home. They are not whimsical and do not require much effort, even for a beginner.
It is easy to arrange conditions for the growth of honey agarics both at home and in a summer cottage or garden. The best time for planting planting material outdoors is in April-May or August., and in the house (warm balcony, basement) throughout the year.
The air temperature at different stages of growth should be from +10 to + 25 ° С.
With a uniform and high level of humidity, the mycelium develops rapidly, which has a beneficial effect on the growth of mushrooms. The building must be well ventilated, it can be a window or built-in ventilation. Light for the growth of mushrooms is not needed bright, it can be grown almost in semi-darkness. Only then will the mushroom caps be pale, but this will not affect their taste. At the dacha for planting honey agarics, it is better to choose a shady place so that the wood on which the mycelium is located does not dry out.
You can grow mushrooms using the following methods:
The room must be disinfected before planting. The basement should be well ventilated all year round. It needs to be heated in winter.
For soil for sowing mycelium, use:
All plant components are steamed with hot water for 12 hours for disinfection from pests and mold. After cooling, add honey agaric mycelium (according to the manufacturer's instructions) and mix thoroughly. Then the mixture is laid out in dense polyethylene bags from 5 to 50 kg. Tied bags are stacked on shelves or hung in the basement.
After three days, holes about 5-6 cm long are cut in the bags. After 14-20 days, the mushrooms will sprout and become noticeable.
For normal growth of honey agarics at this stage, good lighting, high humidity and temperatures from +14 to +16 ° C are necessary.
They can be used to grow mushrooms both on the street and in the house at temperatures from +10 to + 25 ° С. The larch log should not be rotten, but moist and barked. Length 300-500 mm, diameter 200-500 mm. If it is dry, then it is soaked in water for two or three days. Then they are pulled out and allowed to drain off the water.
You can grow mushrooms on logs in three ways:
A hygrometer is used to determine the percentage of moisture.
Greenhouses and greenhouses are well suited for the temperature and humidity levels for growing mushrooms. Logs, stumps, logs are moistened and placed in a greenhouse. After that, holes are made in the wood and myceliums are laid, or they can be poured with a solution containing fungal spores. The planting is watered regularly to maintain moisture, and also monitor the air temperature. It is also possible to grow mushrooms in greenhouses in jars, bags or on substrate blocks.
This method of growing mushrooms allows you to do without personal plots. The jar can be placed on the balcony or on the windowsill.
A substrate is made for the growth of the mycelium - a mixture of sawdust (better than larch species) and bran in a ratio of 3: 1. For one day, it is poured with water, then squeezed out and not strongly compacted.
To prevent infection of mycelium with mold, the jar with the substrate is sterilized in hot water for an hour.
After the mixture has cooled, a hollow is made in it with a clean stick to the bottom of the jar and the mushroom mycelium is placed. The container is closed with a lid with holes and covered with wet cotton wool to maintain moisture. The jar is removed to a dark and warm place. As it dries, the cotton wool is moistened.
The mycelium will sprout in a month, and after 15-20 days the first mushrooms will appear. As soon as the mushrooms rise, the container is placed on the windowsill on the north side, or darkened from the sun. When they grow to the lid, it is removed and the neck of the can is wrapped with a wide strip of cardboard. This will help the mushrooms to hold on during growth. To maintain moisture, the mushrooms are sprayed with water. As it grows, the crop is cut off, and the remaining legs are pulled out. In 14-20 days, new mushrooms will grow.
Planting mycelium on a stump is done in a warm, but not hot season. In the forest, on old stumps or tree trunks, they find mycelium and separate its part along with a piece of wood. For planting, recesses are cut out in the hemp, and pieces of mycelium 1-2 cm in size are laid. Then cover with wet moss or sawdust. The soil around it is watered, preventing it from drying out.
Overripe mushroom caps with a dark brown color underneath are selected. They are placed in a container and filled with clean water for 24 hours. Then, without getting them out of the water, rub them with your hands. The resulting mass is filtered. A solution containing spores is watered on stumps or logs with notches made in them. Thanks to them, the wood is better impregnated. Then they are covered with wet moss or sawdust. Spores germinate for a long time, mushrooms will grow only after 1-2 years. After the mycelium has grown on wood or hemp, it can be propagated. For this, a part of it is carefully separated and transplanted to a new place.
You need to buy mycelium only in specialized stores, since the goods are stored in them in the correct conditions. If, during the cultivation of winter mushrooms in containers, the temperature rises high, then they should be refrigerated for several days. The temperature should be no more than + 8 ° С, but not less than + 4 ° С.
Honey mushrooms are delicious mushrooms, the advantage of which is rapid growth. They lend themselves well to growing at home, the planting process is affordable and interesting, even a beginner can handle it.
Some buy ready-made homemade mushrooms, others prefer other ways of growing these tasty and healthy mushrooms. In any case, several rules must be followed to obtain the expected yield.
The easiest way to grow mushrooms from mycelium - seed, which can be purchased on thematic sites on the Internet, in specialized stores and on large mushroom farms. The mycelium should be stored in the refrigerator at a temperature of about +5 degrees.
Summer mushrooms are much easier and cheaper to grow than winter mushrooms. But unlike winter mushrooms, which are grown indoors, they can only be grown in the warm season.
The easiest way to grow such mushrooms on stumps... For this, fellings of deciduous tree species are selected: birch, aspen, linden, maple, poplar, apple and others. Log cabins must be intact, with no signs of decay or disease.
Summer mushroom breeding technology does not differ much from the technology of growing shiitake mushrooms, however, in the case of honey agarics, hemp should be outdoors - in the garden or on the backyard.
On the end and side surfaces of the wood cut, holes are drilled four to five centimeters deep and about 0.5 centimeters in diameter, where the mycelium is laid, after which the holes are plugged with wooden plugs.
The best time to plant mycelium - end of March or beginning of April (depending on the climate). The first fruiting occurs in the autumn of the same year.
Regardless of the type of honey agaric, you can grow edible mushrooms in an apartment, a greenhouse and even a summer cottage, observing several conditions that contribute to a long-term harvest. The list of recommendations includes:
Honey mushrooms are not difficult to grow on your site. They are not whimsical to care for and it does not take much effort to grow them. Let's see a few ways to grow them at home.
Growing conditions for honey agaric.
The mycelium of these mushrooms grows rapidly, the most important thing is that the humidity level is high enough, and the temperature is within 10-25 degrees.
The room where mushrooms grow must be ventilated so that condensation does not form on the walls. Honey mushrooms can grow in semi-darkness, their only hats will be white.
If you grow them outdoors, then you need to choose a place where the shade is most often so that the soil does not dry out.
It is better to plant mushrooms in late April-early May outside, and indoors you can grow all year round, if you observe optimal conditions.
Methods for growing mushrooms.
The basement must be well ventilated, i.e. it needs ventilation or at least a window. In winter, the basement needs to be heated. Before planting mushrooms, thoroughly disinfect the premises.
The soil mixture for planting contains soil, straw, seed husks, sawdust, tree leaves. All components of the mixture are first poured with hot water and left so for twelve hours, and then disinfected from spores of fungi, larvae and adult insect pests.
After all these procedures, the mycelium of the fungus is added to the soil mixture and stirred well.
Then they take dense plastic bags, fill them with a soil mixture with mycelium, tie them up and either put them on the shelves or tie them to the ceiling. Three days later, 6-7 cm holes are made in the bag. After half a month, the mushrooms begin to germinate and become noticeable. For their further growth, you need to provide good lighting, high humidity and temperatures from 15 degrees. When the mushrooms get stronger, the illumination can be reduced.
Logs use deciduous trees. The log must be moist, healthy, and free from rot. The length and diameter are about 350-450 mm. If the log is dry, place it in water for a few days.
The first way to grow honey agaric. Small holes are made in the log at a distance of 8-9 cm from each other. The mycelium is planted in the holes. Then the log is wrapped in a film, having previously made holes in it, for the passage of air. After that, the logs are placed in rooms with high humidity and temperatures in the region of 17-20 degrees, for mycelium to germinate. After a few months, mushrooms appear on the log.
Second way. On the site, it is better where there is no sun, they dig small trenches 15-20 cm long. They are watered and the logs are laid horizontally. The mycelium should already be planted in the logs. And they leave the mycelium to germinate. Watering such a plantation is necessary often so that the soil does not dry out. Also, to protect mushrooms from snails and slugs, ash is sprinkled around the ground.
Third way. Prepare the log as in the first method and place it in a barrel with soil for germination. This method can be used at home.
In this way, mushrooms are grown in summer. A tree or stump with honey agarics is found in the forest. A small part of the mycelium is carefully removed. On their site, a small hole is cut out in the stump and the mycelium is placed there. Then it is covered with wet moss or sawdust. The ground around the stump and the stump itself are constantly watered.
Before planting, the jars are sterilized to protect the mycelium from mold. The planting substrate is prepared from sawdust, hardwood and bran. The ratio of the components is 3: 1. All components are poured with hot water, insisted for a day. Then the water is drained and pressed a little. When the mixture has cooled, holes are made in it and the mycelium is placed there. Holes are made in the lid and the jar is closed. Cover the top with damp gauze or cotton wool, which is moistened as it dries. Next, the jar is placed in a warm place. After half a month, honey agarics appear in it. After their appearance, the jar is placed to the window, on the windowsill. When the mushrooms reach the lid, remove it. The neck of the can is wrapped in a dense material, for example, cardboard. It will help the mushrooms to hold on. When the mushrooms grow, they are cut, and after a while new mushrooms appear in their place.
High humidity and temperature allows you to grow mushrooms in a greenhouse on any substrate. Take, for example, a log, moisten it and place it in a greenhouse. Then the mycelium is planted in the holes made and germinated. The substrate is constantly watered. They monitor the air temperature, if in summer it is too high, then the greenhouse is cooled.
Honey agaric spores can be purchased in the store, or you can prepare yourself. For this, the darkest mushroom caps are plucked. They put them in a jar, fill in with clean water and leave to infuse for 12 hours. Then the hats are rubbed into porridge with their hands. The entire solution is filtered and poured over stumps, logs, etc. Then cover the watered place with wet moss. Disputes will take a long time to germinate. You will be able to harvest the crop only after one or two years. After the growth of the mycelium, part of it can be separated and planted in another place.
When buying disputes in the store, be careful. The bags must be stored in the correct conditions, otherwise the spores will die and there will be no fungi.
Whichever method you choose, remember that for good growth of mushrooms you need high humidity and a temperature in the range of 10-25 degrees.
Growing honey agarics in banks
You might like the article on how to make frozen honey mushroom soup.
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Husks and cobs are allowed to be used as an independent base. Boil everything together in water. When the sawdust drains a little and cools down, add nutritious mass to enhance the growth of mushrooms in the jar. For 1 kg of sawdust, you need to take:
Then the jars are tightly filled with the resulting mass by 2/3 of the volume, sterilized in a large saucepan over low heat for at least 2 hours. After cooling to 25 ° C, depressions of 5-7 cm are made with a sterile stick and mycelium is added. After the cans are placed in a dark place with a constant temperature of 24 ° C and 85% humidity.
To avoid drying out, the contents are covered with a lid with a hole, which is covered with cotton wool. When the mycelium sprouts, the jars are moved to a cooler place or the temperature in the room is lowered to 14-16 ° C. On the neck of the jar, paper is attached in the form of a cuff and wait for the appearance of the crop.
When the mushrooms sprout 5-7 cm from the jar, the cuffs are removed and the mushrooms are cut off. The yield is 25-30 percent of the initial volume of the wet substrate.
The containers are closed again and left on the glazed balcony. In 20-30 days, you can expect new honey agarics.
In artificially created conditions, honey mushrooms are grown in various ways. For this, stumps, greenhouses and even banks are used. Each option implies certain features that must be taken into account in order to obtain a good harvest and a quality product.
This method attracts many people with minimal costs and maximum proximity to natural conditions. It is better to choose stumps from birches or fir trees, but apple, pear, aspen or poplar will do. Summer mushrooms prefer hardwoods.
Stumps must meet the following requirements:
The stump should be moistened not only on the outside, but also on the inside to the very core. It can be moistened on its own by watering abundantly for 1-2 days. Water can be poured in a bucket or in portions from a hose.
A sufficient level of moisture is indicated by a rich dark color on the cut. If you cut off a small piece, then liquid will ooze from it.
Mushroom planting can be carried out from May until the end of summer. It is necessary to act according to the following algorithm:
For one medium-sized hemp, use about a liter of talker.
Mushrooms planted in this way hatch for a long time. It will be possible to enjoy the fruits of your labors only in a year and a half.
Honey mushrooms bear fruit on one stump for about 5 years. During this time, it collapses, and mushrooms can move to the ground. If there are trees nearby, they will attach to large roots.
How to choose the right stumps for growing mushrooms on them is described in this video:
For growing honey agarics on a stump, you can use not only a talker, but also particles of mycelium. This method attracts by the faster appearance of the first harvest.
It is better to take the mycelium from a practically rotted stump. You should choose an area where there are many light cream threads, and the mushroom aroma is strong.
It is necessary to act according to the following algorithm:
When growing honey agarics, there is a risk of infection of crops growing nearby: placing mycelium on a living tree causes its death. To avoid such a nuisance, trenches with a depth of 0.3 m and a width of 0.1 m should be organized around the stumps.
Infected stumps or logs can be kept in the basement until the mycelium sprouts. During this time, they should be covered with straw. Basement walls and floors are recommended to be wiped daily. This measure is necessary to maintain optimal humidity levels.
This growing method is attractive for obtaining large yields by creating optimal moisture levels. For cultivation, a controversial talker is used, which is prepared in the same way as for infecting stumps.
Further actions are performed according to the following algorithm:
When grown in greenhouses, the crop can be harvested as early as mid-June. Harvesting usually lasts until autumn.
In the absence of your own plot, honey mushrooms can be grown even in an ordinary apartment. For this, banks are used, which are placed on the windows. This method is only suitable for winter mushrooms.
Banks should be chosen with a volume of at least 1 liter. Plastic bags can be used instead.
For growing honey agarics, it is better to choose windows on the north side, since they need shade, and direct sunlight is destructive.
For growing honey agarics in jars, you must use a substrate. To do this, mix one part of the bran with 3 parts of sawdust (preferably from hardwood). Additionally, you can use corn cobs (grind), buckwheat husks, sunflower husks.
For growing honey agarics in jars, mycelium is used, which can be purchased in a specialized store or from a private owner. It is necessary to act according to the following algorithm:
At the stage of preparatory activities, the substrate can be fed. To do this, mix 25 g of corn and oat flour and 8 g of starch. This volume is designed for 1 kg of substrate.
The first crop is harvested within half a month after the mycelium sprouts. From the moment of infection with mycelium, an average of 45 days pass. If the technology is observed, one three-liter jar can provide up to 1.5 kg of mushrooms.
Instead of pasteurizing cans with a substrate, you can boil the prepared mixture. To do this, it is poured with water for 10 minutes to swell. Then the composition is boiled for 45 minutes over low heat, periodically adding water so that the mass does not burn. At the end, the excess water must be drained and the excess liquid must be evaporated. The substrate should be moist, but not wet. Then they act according to the standard scheme.
The mycelium can be placed not only in the prepared holes, but also mixed with the substrate. This can be done only after the mixture has cooled to 25 degrees. To mix the mycelium with the substrate, use a wooden spatula, which must be sterilized first. The resulting mixture is placed in jars.
The holes in the lid must be made without fail. This is necessary to remove gases emitted by fungal spores. Fluffed cotton wool can be used instead of a perforated lid.
To get mushrooms regularly, you need to prepare jars at intervals of 1-1.5 weeks.
See the experiment on growing mushrooms in a bank and its result: