Hyssop: language of hyssop flowers and plants


LANGUAGE AND MEANING OF FLOWERS AND PLANTS

HYSSOP

Hyssopus officinalis

(family

Lamiaceae

)

We do not know for sure if the hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) that we know is the one that is handed down in history. It is certain that a plant called hyssop is mentioned several times in the Holy Scriptures at very important moments. 'Old Testament, when the Lord prescribes it for the first Passover: “Go and get a small head of cattle for each of your families and sacrifice the Passover. You will take a bundle of hyssop, you will dip it in the blood that will be in the basin and sprinkle the architraves and the jambs with the blood of the basin. None of you will go out the door of his house until morning. The Lord will pass to strike Egypt, he will see the blood on the lintel and on the doorposts: then he will pass through the door and will not allow the exterminator to enter your house to strike ».

David himself quotes him saying: «Purify me with hyssop and I will be cleansed: I will wash my clothes whiter than snow».

He still mentions the New Testament as hyssop was the rod in which the sponge was fixed and then dipped in the vinegar given to Jesus Christ on the cross.

Hyssop has therefore always been associated with purification, with sacrifice, making this herb sacred.


Hyssop

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)

Parts used: leaves and flowers

The flowering tops of the hyssop contain a very pleasant essential oil which is responsible for most of the properties of this little plant.

It is a slightly dense, colorless or yellowish-greenish liquid, not very soluble in alcohol with a pleasantly aromatic smell and a slightly bitter taste.

It is attributed anti-arthritic, anti-asthma, anti-rheumatic, bronchial antispasmodic, appetite and nervous system stimulating properties.

Externally: the essence of Hyssop is effective on bruises and injuries such as wounds and ulcerations. It has a remarkable expectorant and bechic power.

How to use: for an infusion use 2 teaspoons of dry grass for a cup of boiling water, cover, leave to rest for 10 minutes, filter. Dose: 3 cups a day. Also available as a biochelated extract, it is taken in 8-15 drops, two / three times a day.

To prepare the tablet: take 30g. of dry grass for half a liter of boiling water, let stand for 15 minutes. Dip a thick gauze or piece of clean cloth and apply to genital or labial herpes.

It is commercially available for internal use in the form of TM or as EO (2-4 drops on a sugar cube or tablet for essential oils http://www.aroma-zone.com/info/fiche-technique/pastilles-neutres -aroma-zone 3 times a day) or as a spagyric essence or MicroDose (Dr. Martinez Bravo method).

Use is not recommended: of the plant during pregnancy, at the time of purchase make sure it is really Hyssopus officinalis, as there are many plants commonly called hyssop.

OE should be: used under medical supervision, as it can induce seizures. The herb has been shown to be effective for: loosen mucus and facilitate expulsion, for cough and respiratory irritation, asthma, dyspnoea, chronic bronchitis, TB (neutralizes Koch's bacillus), rheumatism, hypotension, urinary lithiasis, digestive atony, leukorrhea, certain types of tumors.

antiseptic: regulator of sweating, in eruptive fevers, against leucorrhea, external use: healing, for bruising, syphilis, eczema: a dropper of spagyric essence full for each tablespoon of water, shake hard before use, for washes and packs .. Respect the indicated dosages.

expectorant, expectorant, fluidifying secretions

anti-asthmatic, in case of non-allergic asthma

breastfeeding bronchiolitis

diaphoretic, sedative, carminative, tonic and stimulating, sympathetic / tonic (action at the level of the sympathetic nervous system)

Indications :

chronic and asthmatic, nasopharyngitis, sinusitis,

infant bronchiolitis

Bronchial asthma with secretions and inflammatory, other than pure allergic asthma

Nervous depressions and anxieties.

Frequent synergies:

Horehound in bronchial catarrh. Marigold flowers in childhood fever. Ravintsare (Cineolo 1.8)

Warnings and contraindications:

As with all strongly balsamic plants, the use of hyssop is contraindicated in the acute phase of the inflammatory process of the respiratory system, otherwise there are no contraindications.

It is also contraindicated in pregnancy and in nervous and sensitive subjects.

I recommend administration via the skin and rectum. The best use is through a suppository, where hyssop is associated, with extraordinary effects, with the odorous elecampane and eucalyptus radiata.

NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH THE ISSOPO OFFICINALIS VAR. OFFICINALIS,

neurotoxic and aborted contrary to this variety deprived of this toxicity.


Headings

Hyssop is an excellent aromatic plant due to its strong aromatic scent and pungent flavor.

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION

Kingdom : Plantae
Sub-kingdom : Tracheobionta (vascular plants)
Division : Magnoliophyta (formerly Angiospermae)
Class : Magnoliopsida (formerly Dicotyledones)
Subclass : Asteridae
Order : Lamiales
Family : Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae)
Kind : Hyssopus
Species: Hyssopus officinalis
Dialect names: Odorous herb, Isopiglio, Isopo, Aesop, Issepo, Pericò, Isop, Soleggio, Issepo, Lissope, Issòpu, Ippese, Erba sopu, Locasi, Erva ssopu, Locasi

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

The genus Hyssop belongs to the large family of Lamiaceae where we find very famous aromatic plants such as mint, sage, marjoram, lavender, basil, oregano, thyme and many others. It is a herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean regions that is found up to the mountainous areas of southern Europe, western Asia, Morocco and Russia. In Italy it grows spontaneously especially in the north, in stony, calcareous soils, in sunny and arid areas.

They are bushy perennial plants that grow between 30 and 60 cm in height, with a short rhizome, with a woody stem at the base, very branched and slightly pubescent.

The leaves, without petiole, are very fragrant and provided with a light down, lanceolate and opposite, up to 3 cm long and with raised ribs.

The flowers are tubular, typical of the genus, bilabiate at the ends of the corolla, collected in very dense spikes that develop at the axil of the upper leaves. They are blue - violet in color and bloom from July to September.

Although mostly the blue-violet flowered variety is found, there are also white flowered varieties (Hyssopus officinalis albus variety) and pink flowered (Hyssopus officinalis roseus variety).

The fruit is composed of four achenes that contain only one seed inside them.

All the aerial parts of the plant have a strong aromatic scent and a pungent flavor.

CULTURAL TECHNIQUE

Hyssop is a very rustic plant that adapts quite well to different soil and climatic situations, resisting even low temperatures. It is a plant that also grows well in pots, therefore it can also be successfully bred at home as long as it is placed in the sun.

WATERING

Watering must be very moderate as it is a plant that grows well in dry soils and does not tolerate humid environments.

TYPE OF SOIL AND REPOT

Hyssop does not require particular soils, preferring, however, somewhat stony, dry, calcareous and well exposed substrates.

FERTILIZATION

It is a very rustic plant and does not require special attention regarding fertilization.

The hyssop blooms in the summer, July and August.

At the beginning of spring (March-April) the plant is pruned vigorously by cutting the stem about 10 cm from the ground to give vigor to the plant.

MULTIPLICATION

Hyssop multiplies by seed or by cutting.

MULTIPLICATION FOR TALEA

In April-May, about 5-7 cm long cuttings are taken from the basal shoots from the plants.

It is recommended to cut with a very sharp blade to avoid fraying of the fabrics and taking care that the blade is well cleaned and disinfected if possible with the flame, to avoid infecting the fabrics.

The lower leaves are eliminated, and the cuttings are arranged in a compost formed by a part of peat and a part of sand by making holes with a pencil, as many as there are cuttings to root, delicately compacting the soil.

Keep in constantly moist soil and once the first shoots begin to appear, it means that the cutting has taken root. At that point they invade.

In the case of multiplication by seed, this is carried out in early spring, in March, in a compote for seeds if carried out in pots or boxes or in April if carried out directly in the field as the seed has a good germination capability. The seedlings will be planted in early autumn (September-October).

AROMATIC PROPERTIES

The parts of the plant used for aromatic purposes are the flowers and leaves which contain: essential oil, tannin, choline, glycosides. The essential oil of hyssop is very aromatic, with a pleasant smell and dark yellow color and contains pinene, limonene, geraniol, thuione, pinocanfone, isopinocanfone, estragolo, myrcene, caryophyllene, nopinene, hyssopine, tannin, resin, a glucoside, acid malic, gum, sulfur, a bitter principle.

The essential oil is extracted from the leaves and flowers by steam distillation.

The flowers must be collected at the beginning of flowering, therefore in the summer period (July-August) because if collected at this time, they have the highest content of essential oils as well as the leaves.

Once collected, they can be immediately dried in ventilated and dark places and stored dry in paper bags inside hermetically sealed jars.

USE IN THE KITCHEN

In the kitchen we use the leaves that can be harvested all year round even if the best, the most aromatic, are those that are harvested just before flowering. They can also be dried to be used over time because they retain their aroma.

Flowers can be used to decorate dishes and give color to different dishes.

In addition to being an aromatic plant, hyssop is also used to form small hedges.

It is an excellent melliferous plant even if the honey remains intensely fragrant.

In Persia the distilled water obtained from hyssop is used for the skin as it is reputed to make it luminous.

The name Hyssop derives from the Latin word "Hyssopu" or from the Greek "hyssopos" which in turn would be derived from the Hebrew "ezob or esob" which means holy grass.

In common parlance it is known as fragrant grass.

The hyssop is a plant that is mentioned in the Old Testament and precisely Exodus 12, 22 which reads "Then you will take a bunch of hyssop, you will dip it in the blood that is in the basin and with the blood that is in the basin you will sprinkle the lintel and the two doorposts and none of you will leave the door of his house until morning "to mark the houses of the Jewish families so as not to suffer the divine wrath that would have led to the killing of the first-born Egyptians.

It is mentioned in the book of psalms (51, 9) "Purify me with hyssop and I will be world, wash me and I will be whiter than snow".

We find it in Hebrews 9, 19 "In fact, when all the commandments were according to the law proclaimed by Moses to all the people, he took the blood of the calves and goats with water, scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled the book itself and all the people.".

John 19:29 which mentions it to indicate the branch that was used to wet the sponge with vinegar to be given to Jesus Christ on the cross: "Now there was a jar full of vinegar there. Soaking a sponge in vinegar and placing it on top of a hyssop branch, they brought it to his mouth. "

In Leviticus 14, 6 it is indicated in the purification of the leper: "Then he will take the live bird, the cedar wood, the scarlet cloth and the hyssop and immerse them, with the live bird, in the blood of the bird slaughtered above the living water.."

In the book of numbers 17-18 to those who become contaminated by touching a corpse or other things that make it impure it says "And for an impure person he will take the ashes of the burned victim to purify from sin and pour running water on it, then a pure man will take hyssop into a vase, dip it in water and sprinkle the tent, all the utensils, all the people who are there and the one who touched a bone or the killed or the dead of natural death or the sepulcher. "

These are just to give some examples. It should be noted, however, that many scholars express serious doubts about the fact that the hyssop mentioned in the bible is the same as we know and which we are talking about in this sheet because Hyssopus officinalis does not grow in Palestine so they are more likely to associate it. to oregano (Origanum maru) which grew abundantly in those lands at the time of the events narrated.

Hyssop is mentioned by Pliny as a remedy against lice and itching in the head and against snake bites. Hippocrates recommended it for pleurisy while Dioscorides (Greek doctor, botanist and pharmacist who lived between 40 and 90 BC who practiced in Rome at the time of Emperor Nero) recommended it in cases of asthma and phlegm and drunk as an infusion with wine. to combat mercury and lead poisoning.

Saint Hildegard (Abbess Hildegard von Bingen, became a saint and lived in Germany from 1098 to 1179, medical scholar - photo on the side) recommended it together with cinnamon and licorice as a remedy for affections of the lungs and liver and as a cure for a man who became a leper along with other medicines.

Trotula de Ruggiero, an Italian doctor who in the 11th century worked at the Salerno medical school recommended it to purify the lungs together with the fig "The wine where hyssop and dried figs have been cooked are valid for cold coughs".

The same Medical School of Salerno (the first and most important medical institution in Europe in the Middle Ages) mentions it in its texts "Hyssop cleanses the chest of harmful phlegm. The extract of the plant mixed with honey is used".


The medicinal properties of this extraordinary plant

Thanks to its extraordinary resistance, this plant is excellent for enhancing poor and stony soils prone to drought. In which otherwise it would be difficult to grow such beautiful and fragrant flowers as hyssop. In addition, this flower is not only extremely beautiful and fragrant but also has the ability to attract bees and other beneficial insects. Which is why it is certainly worthwhile to plant this flower in our garden.

Similarly, the hyssop plant has medicinal properties thanks to its precious content of essential oils, tannins and flavonoids. All positive substances for our body, which can be used in physiotherapy.

This is why we should all plant hyssop, an extraordinary aromatic plant that is excellent for scenting and enhancing even the poorest and most rocky soils.


Where and how to plant hyssop

L'hyssopus officinalis it is a native plant of our peninsula and therefore capable of adapting to the most diverse conditions. From the point of view of the soil it is not particularly demanding, even if it prefers calcareous soils. In the same way, it does not even require specific climatic needs: this exceptional plant easily resists even the lowest temperatures, a feature that makes it easy to grow even for beginners.

In order to plant hyssop, the methods are different: we can sow them in seedbeds from the first days of spring or we can propagate it with cuttings, obtaining genetically identical specimens finally, certainly the simplest method, we can always buy it from a nursery.


Hyssopus Officinalis (Hyssop)

Bushy perennial plant whose stems are dense, slender, erect and quadrangular. The leaves are small, oblong-lanceolate in shape, with evident ribs. The flowers are blue-violet, more rarely white-pink, and appear in summer in the armpit of the highest leaves.

FLOWERING: Flowering occurs in June.

LIGHT: This plant definitely requires a very sunny position.

WATER: The hyssop needs little watering and is very afraid of water stagnation.

TEMPERATURE: It prefers mild climates, does not tolerate harsh temperatures at all.

FERTILIZER: Use complex ternary fertilizer.

ADVICE: Easily cultivated, hyssop multiplies by seed and spontaneously self-sows. Choose a site exposed to the sun, drained, possibly neutral to alkaline. For this aromatic we recommend sowing in seedbeds and then transplanting the seedlings in spring, when the fourth leaf appears. Reproduction is simpler by division of the tufts (March-April) and by cuttings (August-September). At the beginning of the new season, towards the end of March, cut the plants at a height of 10-15 cm to renew their vigor.

CURIOSITY': Plant native to Europe, Asia. Hyssop has pectoral, carminative, purifying and healing virtues. For medicinal purposes it is used for the treatment of coughs, catarrhs, asthma, colds, it facilitates digestion and fights meteorism. In the kitchen it gives food a pleasant bitter and spicy flavor. It is used to flavor meats, soups and omelettes or to flavor vinegars and liqueurs.


  • 1 Etymology
  • 2 Description
    • 2.1 Roots
    • 2.2 Barrel
    • 2.3 Leaves
    • 2.4 Inflorescence
    • 2.5 Flower
    • 2.6 Fruits
  • 3 Playback
  • 4 Distribution and habitat
  • 5 Taxonomy
    • 5.1 Phylogeny
    • 5.2 Italian spontaneous species
    • 5.3 List of species
    • 5.4 Synonyms
  • 6 Uses
    • 6.1 Pharmacy
    • 6.2 Kitchen
    • 6.3 Other uses
  • 7 Adulteration
  • 8 Other news
  • 9 Acknowledgments
  • 10 Some species
  • 11 Notes
  • 12 Bibliography
  • 13 Related items
  • 14 Other projects
  • 15 External links

In modern times, even before Carl von Linné, it was the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (Aix-en-Provence, June 5, 1656 - Paris, December 28, 1708) who named these plants. In reality, the etymology of the name of the genus can be traced back to 2000 years earlier among the Greeks, perhaps from Theophrastus (371 BC - Athens, 287 BC) an ancient Greek philosopher and botanist, disciple of Aristotle, author of two extensive botanical treatises who first used this name for an aromatic herb [2]. Origanum it consists of two words "òros" (= upstream) e "ganào" (= I am delighted) which together could allude to a concept of "mountain delight" [3] or even "beauty, brightness, ornament, joy of the mountain" [4], or because it grows well in the mountains or in the upper floors of sunny areas.

The scientific name of the genus was defined by Linnaeus (1707 - 1778), also known as Carl von Linné, Swedish biologist and writer considered the father of the modern scientific classification of living organisms, in the publication "Species Plantarum - 2. 1753" of 1753. [5]

These plants grow to a maximum height of 7–8 decimetres (70–80 cm). The prevalent biological form is scapose hemicryptophyte (H scap), that is, they are herbaceous plants, with a perennial biological cycle, with wintering buds at ground level and protected by litter or snow and have an erect floral axis often devoid of leaves. There are also other biological forms such as camefite suffruticosa (Ch suffr), that is perennial and woody plants at the base (subarbustive), with wintering buds placed at a height from the ground between 2 and 30 cm (the herbaceous portions dry annually and remain alive only the woody parts). The whole plant is aromatic. [3] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

Roots Edit

The roots are secondary generated by a taproot. The taproots can be oblique and more or less woody.

Trunk Edit

The aerial part of the stem is ascending (sometimes prostrate at the base) and possibly branchy (but the lower branches are sterile). The stem is pubescent, sometimes woody, and has a quadrangular section due to the presence of bundles of collenchyma placed in the four vertices, while the four faces are concave.

Leaves Edit

The leaves along the stem are arranged opposite (usually 2 to 2). They are petiolate with a lanceolate or ovate-shaped lamina, often asymmetrical at the base, the edges are indented. The leaves are colored green. The stipules are absent.

Inflorescence Edit

The inflorescence is both corimboso-ramose, formed by dense oval glomeruli, and paniculate, formed by dense pedunculated spikes with more or less ovate shapes and flowers (not many - maximum 8-10) the flowers are sessile. At the base of the glomerulus / spike there are two purplish-purple or green bracts with oval-rhombic cilium shapes on the edges and with the hairy surface they can be (or not) covered with glands.

Flower Edit

The flowers are hermaphrodites, zygomorphs, tetramers (4-cyclic), i.e. with four verticils (chalice - corolla - androecium - gynoecium) and pentamers (5-mer: the corolla and the chalice - the perianth - are 5 parts). The flowers are rarely polygamous-dioecious (hermaphroditic and female flowers on distinct plants such as in Origanum vulgare).

  • Floral formula. For the family of these plants the following floral formula is indicated:
X, K (5), [C (2 + 3), A 2 + 2] G (2), (supero), 4 nucule[7][9]
  • Calyx: the calyx of the flower is of the gamosepalo type, actinomorphic (or slightly zygomorphic - but not bilabiated - with the shape of a cone open on one side) and ending with 5 triangular-acute teeth more or less equal (they are 1/3 of the tube). The surface of the calyx, pubescent, is crossed by 10 - 13 longitudinal ribs. The jaws are hairy.
  • Corolla: the corolla, gamopetala, has a sublabiatic symmetry (more or less zygomorphic with a 2/3 structure) ending with 5 patent lobes. The tube is cylindrical-campanulate and a good part of it is covered by the chalice. The upper lip is retuso (bilobo) with oval shapes and is bent upwards. The lower lip has three oblong-ovate lobes. The color is white or pink.
  • Androceus: the stamens are four (the median, the fifth is missing) didynami with the longest anterior pair, the stamens are visible and protruding are all fertile in the hermaphrodite flowers, they are reduced or absent in the female flowers. The filaments are hairless and divergent. The anthers have ellipsoid to ovate-oblong shapes, while the showcases are distinct and are divergent to wide apart. The pollen grains are of the tricolpate or exacolpated type.
  • Gineceum: the ovary is superior formed by two welded carpels (bicarpellar ovary) and is 4-locular due to the presence of false dividing septa within the two carpels. The ovary is hairless. The placentation is axial. There are 4 ova (one for each presumed niche), they have an integument and are tenuinucellated (with the nocella, the primordial stage of the ovum, reduced to a few cells). [12] The (caducous) style inserted at the base of the ovary (ginobasic style) is of the filiform type and longer than the stamens. The stigma is bifid with short subequal lobes. The nectary is a more or less symmetrical disk at the base of the ovary and is rich in nectar.

Fruits Edit

The fruit is a schizocarp composed of 4 nuculae. The shape is ovoid (with rounded apex) with a glabrous and smooth surface. The color is brown.

  • Pollination: pollination occurs through insects such as diptera and hymenoptera, rarely lepidoptera (entomogamous pollination). [7] [13]
  • Reproduction: fertilization basically takes place via pollination of the flowers (see above).
  • Dispersion: the seeds falling to the ground (after being carried for a few meters by the wind - anemocora dissemination) are subsequently dispersed mainly by insects such as ants (myrmecoria dissemination). The seeds have an oily appendage (elaisomi, substances rich in fats, proteins and sugars) which attracts ants as they travel in search of food. [14]

The species of this genus (about 40 - 50) are mainly native to the Mediterranean basin (but some species are also present in Asia [15]) and prefer warm-temperate habitats. About 60% of the taxa grow in Anatolia, this could indicate this geographical area as the center of origin of the species of Origanum. The rate of endemism is also high in this region. [16]

Of the three species present on the Italian territory, two are found in the Alps. The following table highlights some data relating to the habitat, substrate and distribution of Alpine species [17].

Substrate with “Ca / Si” we mean rocks of an intermediate character (siliceous limestones and the like) only the alpine areas of the Italian territory are taken into consideration (the abbreviations of the provinces are indicated).
Plant communities: 11 = community of terrestrial macro- and megaphorbs.
Environments: B6 = cleared forest cuts, clearings, forest roads B9 = human crops F7 = herbaceous edges of the woods G3 = low spots G4 = shrubs and forest edges.

The family of belonging of the genus (Lamiaceae), very numerous with about 250 genera and almost 7000 species, has the main center of differentiation in the Mediterranean basin and are mostly xerophilous plants (in Brazil there are also tree species). Due to the presence of aromatic substances, many species of this family are used in cooking as a condiment, in perfumery, liqueur and pharmacy. [9] Currently, with the modern techniques of phylogenetic analysis of DNA, the Lamiaceae family has been divided into 7 subfamilies: the genus Origanum it is described in the Mentheae tribe (sub-tribe Menthinae) belonging to the Nepetoideae subfamily. [6] [18]

Species of the genus Origanum, traditionally, in the Italian spontaneous flora they are divided into two sections with the following characters: [3]

  • Euoriganum: the bracts of the inflorescence are not very hairy (almost hairless) and the calyx is almost regular (actinomorph with 5 more or less similar teeth). Species present: O. vulgare.
  • Majorana: the bracts are tomentose and the calyx is zygomorphic (open anteriorly). Species present: O. majorana is O. onites.

The chromosomal number of the species of this genus is 2n = 30 (32). [8]

Phylogeny Edit

Phylogenetic relationships within the genus are complicated by the presence of different hybrids (up to 18 recognized hybrids [16]). The generic limits of this group have always been the subject of taxonomic discussions. In the past (when the family name was "Labiate") the genus Origanum was described within the "Saturejeae" tribe Benth.. Furthermore, some authors divided the species into two different genera: Origanum L. is Majorana Miller. [3] According to the widely accepted taxonomic revision of Ietswaart (1980), the genus is divided into 10 sections based on the shape and size of the bracts and the calyx: [6] [16]

Group (main characters) Sections and number of species
TO
The bracts are large, membranous and purple colored
the chalice is large with 1 or 2 lips.
Amaracus Bentham (7 species)
Anatolicon Bentham (8 species)
Brevifilamentum Ietswaart (7 species)
Longitubus Ietswaart (a species)
B.
The bracts are small and leaf-like
the chalice is small with 1 or 2 lips.
Chilocalyx Ietswaart (4 species)
Majorana Bentham (3 species)
C.
The chalice has 5 more or less equal teeth.
Campanulaticalyx Ietswaart (6 species)
Elongatispica Ietswaart (3 species)
Origanum (A species)
Prolaticorolla Ietswaart (3 species)

To this list must be added 6 other species described after 1980.

A recent study on the section Majorana (formed by the species O. majorana, O. onites, O. syriacum is O. dubium - the latter species is considered by some checklists to be a synonym or a variety of O. majorana), based on some DNA sequences, showed the direct lineage of O. majorana from O. syriacum, and a hybrid origin of O. dubium between O. onites, O. syriacum and a third unidentified species. [19]

Within the sub-tribe Menthinae the genus Origanum belongs to the Mediterranean clade (the other clade is related to the New World). It is also a "brother group" of the genre Thymus (together they form a well supported clade). [15]

Italian wild species Edit

To better understand and identify the various species of the genus (only for spontaneous species of Italian flora), the following list partially uses the system of analytical keys (that is, only those characteristics useful to distinguish one species from another are indicated). [8]

  • Group 1A: the calyx is actinomorphic with 5 more or less equal teeth
  • Group 2A: the bracts of the inflorescence are 2 - 3 mm long with the surface covered sparsely by golden and shiny glands
  • Origanum vulgare subsp. viridulum(Martrin-Donos) Nyman (Southern oregano) - The height of this subspecies varies from 4 to 7 dm the life cycle is perennial the biological form is scapose hemicryptophyte (H scap) the chorological type is South East Mediterranean (Steno-Mediterranean) the typical habitat for this plant are the sparse woods and the bushes is common and is found in the South up to an altitude between 200 and 1400 ms.l.m .. (Origanum heracleoticumL. in Flora of Italy by Sandro Pignatti).
  • Group 2B: the bracts of the inflorescence are 4 - 5 mm long, colored purple and without glands
  • Origanum vulgareL. (Common oregano) - The height of this species varies from 3 to 5 dm the life cycle is perennial the biological form is scapose hemicryptophyte (H scap) the chorological type is Eurasian the typical habitat for this plant are the sparse woods, the bushes and the sunny cliffs is common and is found throughout the territory up to an altitude of 1400 ms.l.m ..
  • Group 1B: the glass is zygomorphic with the shape of a cone open on one side
  • Group 3A: the stem is covered with hairs all the same, the leaves are petiolate and narrow at the base
  • Origanum majoranaL. (Oregano marjoram) - The height of this species varies from 2 to 6 dm the life cycle is perennial the biological form is scapose hemicryptophyte (H scap) the chorological type is Saharo-Sindhu the typical habitat for this plant are the edges of the streets and the uncultivated is common (cultivated in the vegetable gardens) and is found throughout the territory up to about 2000 meters above sea level. of altitude.
  • Group 3B: the stem is covered by dense hairs 0.1 - 0.2 mm long and by patent bristles 0.1 - 1.5 mm long the leaves are subsessile and truncated-heart-shaped at the base
  • Origanum onitesL. (Sicilian oregano) - The height of this species varies from 3 to 5 dm the biological cycle is perennial the biological form is camefite suffruticosa (Ch suffr) the chorological type is East Mediterranean (Steno-Mediterranean) l'habitat tipico per questa pianta sono le rupi, i muri e gli incolti aridi si trova solamente in Sicilia fino a circa 300 ms.l.m. di altitudine.

Elenco delle specie Modifica

Elenco completo delle specie di Origanum compresi gli ibridi riconosciuti: [1]

  • Origanum acutidens(Hand.-Mazz.) Ietsw., 1980
  • Origanum akhdarenseIetsw. & Boulos, 1975
  • Origanum amanumPost, 1895
  • Origanum bargyliMouterde, 1973
  • Origanum bilgeriP.H.Davis, 1949
  • Origanum boissieriIetsw., 1980
  • Origanum brevidens(Bornm.) Dinsm., 1933
  • Origanum calcaratumJuss., 1789
  • Origanum compactumBenth., 1834
  • Origanum cordifolium(Montbret & Aucher ex Benth.) Vogel, 1841
  • Origanum cyrenaicumBég. & Vacc., 1913
  • Origanum dayiPost, 1893
  • Origanum dictamnusL., 1753
  • Origanum ehrenbergiiBoiss., 1879
  • Origanum elongatum(Bonnet) Emb. & Maire, 1928
  • Origanum floribundumMunby, 1855
  • Origanum haussknechtiiBoiss., 1879
  • Origanum humilePoir.
  • Origanum husnucan-baseriH.Duman, Aytac & A.Duran, 1996
  • Origanum hypericifoliumO.Schwarz & P.H.Davis, 1949
  • Origanum isthmicumDanin, 1969
  • Origanum jordanicumDanin & Kunne, 1996
  • Origanum laevigatumBoiss., 1854
  • Origanum leptocladumBoiss., 1879
  • Origanum libanoticumBoiss., 1844
  • Origanum majoranaL., 1753
  • Origanum microphyllum(Benth.) Vogel, 1841
  • Origanum minutiflorumO.Schwarz & P.H.Davis, 1949
  • Origanum munzurenseKit Tan & Sorger, 1984
  • Origanum onitesL., 1753
  • Origanum pampaninii(Brullo & Furnari) Ietsw., 1980
  • Origanum petraeumDanin, 1990
  • Origanum punonenseDanin, 1990
  • Origanum ramonenseDanin, 1968
  • Origanum rotundifoliumBoiss., 1859
  • Origanum saccatumP.H.Davis, 1949
  • Origanum scabrumBoiss. & Heldr., 1846
  • Origanum sipyleumL., 1753
  • Origanum solymicumP.H.Davis, 1949
  • Origanum symesCarlström, 1984
  • Origanum syriacumL., 1753
  • Origanum vetteriBriq. & Barbey, 1895
  • Origanum vogeliiGreuter & Burdet, 1985
  • Origanum vulgareL., 1753

  • Origanum × adanenseBaser & H.Duman, 1998
  • Origanum × adonidisMouterde, 1935
  • Origanum × barbaraeBornm., 1898
  • Origanum × dolichosiphonP.H.Davis, 1951
  • Origanum × haradjaniiRech.f., 1952
  • Origanum × intercedensRech.f., 1961
  • Origanum × intermediumP.H.Davis, 1949
  • Origanum × liriumHeldr. ex Halácsy, 1899
  • Origanum × majoricumCambess., 1827
  • Origanum × minoanumP.H.Davis, 1953
  • Origanum × nebrodenseTineo ex Lojac., 1907
  • Origanum × pabotiiMouterde, 1973

Sinonimi Modifica

L'entità di questa voce ha avuto nel tempo diverse nomenclature. L'elenco seguente indica alcuni tra i sinonimi più frequenti: [20]


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