The flowering perennial plant Eranthis, also called a spring plant, is a member of the buttercup family. This genus unites only 7 species. Erantis is translated from ancient Greek as "spring flower". In the wild, these plants can be found in southern Europe and Asia. In China, there are 2 species that are endemic, one is considered endemic to the Japanese island of Honshu, and one more to the Siberian mountains. The typical species of spring came to North America from Europe, and today it can be found there even in natural conditions. Cultivated since 1570
Erantis is a flowering herb with a thickened tuberous root. When flowers appear on the plant, or after flowering, Erantis grows 1 or 2 basal leaf plates of a palmate-divided shape. Peduncles in length can reach 25 centimeters, they bear single flowers. Flowers can be seen open only in the daytime, in rainy weather and in the evening they close, thereby protecting the stamens and pistil from moisture. The whorl is located directly under the flower, it consists of large stem leaf plates, which have a deeply dissected shape. This plant blooms for 15–20 days. The fruit is a flat-shaped accrete leaflet, inside of which are olive-brown oblong-ovoid seeds.
Seeds are sown in autumn immediately after they are harvested. Also, this procedure can be carried out in the spring, however, in this case, the seeds must be stratified, for this they are folded into a container filled with moistened sand, which is removed to the refrigerator on a shelf for vegetables. Do not forget to systematically shake the seeds, as well as moisten the sand. They will stay there for 2 winter months. If you sow before winter, then the seeds will be able to undergo natural stratification.
For sowing, you can choose a well-lit place or something that is located in partial shade under trees or shrubs. It is not recommended to plant such flowers in the lowlands, as they often die there under the crust of ice. It is better to choose a soil for sowing moistened, light, slightly alkaline. The seeds must be buried five centimeters deep into the soil. The first seedlings will appear in spring, however, in the first year, only cotyledonous leaf plates appear in erantis, and after a fairly short time they die off. One should not think that the plants have died, they just have at this time all forces are directed to the formation of small nodules, which outwardly resemble clay lumps, already next spring they will have a real leaf plate. Do not forget to dig up young plants and plant in a new permanent place, while the distance between the bushes should be from 6 to 8 centimeters, do not forget to do this until the last days of August. Most often, erantis begins to bloom in the third year of life. In the event that you want to plant the dug nodules in open ground only in spring, then they need to be stored in moistened peat or sand, this will protect them from drying out.
When growing a spring, it should be borne in mind that it is able to reproduce well by self-sowing.
After 2-3 years, erantis will already have a well-developed rhizome, and it is at this time that it can be propagated with tubers. It is necessary to make division after the plant has faded, but to have time before the leaf plates die off. The tubers should be removed from the ground along with the rhizome, then the daughter nodules are separated and the rhizomes are divided into parts. Places of cuts must be sprinkled with crushed charcoal, then nodules and cuttings are immediately planted in open soil in a permanent place, they need to be deepened by 5-6 centimeters, while observing a distance of 10 to 11 centimeters between the holes. It is recommended to plant no more than 3–6 nodules in one hole. Before planting the spring, the holes must be watered and one handful of the substrate, which includes broadleaf wood ash and humus or compost, must be poured into each of them.
It is not necessary to water erantis, since in the spring time the soil contains a lot of moisture, and in the summer months it has a state of dormancy. In the event that, when planting these flowers, the necessary fertilizers were introduced into the planting holes, then you will no longer have to feed them. All that is required from the gardener is the timely loosening of the row spacings, as well as weeding, which should be done even after the foliage has died.
For 5–6 years, you don't have to worry about replanting the spring, during which time lush, spectacular thickets will appear. However, then it is imperative to dig up the plants, divide and plant. It should be remembered that erantis contains poison, therefore, for planting such a flower, they choose an area in a place inaccessible for pets and children.
Since this plant contains poison, it is reliably protected from pests and rodents. If the soil contains a large amount of moisture for a long time, then this can cause the development of gray mold on the root system. In order to prevent this, it is necessary to try to remove excess moisture from the soil, because the roots of this plant react extremely negatively to wetting.
When the flowering of the spring plant ends, a gradual dying off of its aboveground parts will occur. Then the dormant period will begin at the bush. This plant is highly frost-resistant, therefore it is not necessary to cover it for wintering.
Several types of spring plants are grown in the culture, but only a few of them are very popular.
This species comes from southern Europe. In the wild, it prefers to grow on mountain slopes and in forests under deciduous trees. Underground rhizomes have nodules. The leaf plates are basal. The height of leafless peduncles can be up to 15–20 centimeters. Under the six-petalled yellow flowers, there are very spectacular dissected bracts. Flowering begins in the last days of winter, with flowers rising above the snow cover. Leaf plates grow later than flowers. This spring bloom fades in the last days of May or the first days of June, after which the aerial part of the bush dies off. This species has a high winter hardiness. Cultivated since 1570 The most popular varieties:
Under natural conditions, it can be found in Western and Eastern Siberia. The compact bush is tuberous, when it finishes blooming, it dies off in a short time. Single straight shoots are not very tall. On the bush there is only one basal leaf plate of a palmate-split shape. Single flowers are white. Flowers bloom in May, and the growing season for this plant ends in June.
In the wild, you can meet in Greece and Asia Minor. This species came to European countries only in 1892. The height of the bush does not exceed 10 centimeters. In comparison with the winter spring in this species, the flowers have a large size. Deep and finely dissected leaf plates have a purple-red color. Stem leaf plates are also dissected into narrow lobes. In comparison with the wintering erantis, the species begins to bloom half a month later, but its flowering is not so active. This plant is moderately hardy.
His homeland is Central Asia. The bush is very similar to the winter spring, but it is not so high. Its height is only 25 centimeters. The color of the flowers is yellow. Blooms in May.
This hybrid plant was created as a result of crossing Erantis winter and Kiliya. The bracts and nodules in this species are larger, while the flowers do not have pollen, and they do not have seeds, so the plant blooms for a relatively longer time. Popular varieties:
The homeland of this kind is the Far East. The height of the bush is about 20 centimeters. Such a herbaceous perennial plant has 3 basal leaf plates. The leafless shoot bears a white flower, the petals of which are painted in a violet-gray color from below. Prefers to grow in shady areas. Flowering begins in April.
In this Japanese species, the flowers are white, the nectaries are yellow, and the stamens are blue. This species is quite hardy, but experts advise growing it in a greenhouse.
For those who need to decorate a sunny place with good drainage, we recommend the sunflower (heliantemum) - planting and caring for most of the species and varieties of this perennial is quite simple. It is loved by many flower growers for long flowering and unpretentiousness, it perfectly complements the landscape design of flower beds located in arid zones of the garden.
The Latin name - Eremurus consists of two words "eremos" (desert) and "ura" (tail). In some countries the plant is known as Cleopatra's Needle. Another name is shrysh or shiryash, which means glue in Tajik. Dry roots are used to make glue and plaster, while young roots of some species are edible, boiled like asparagus. All parts of the eremurus are used as a dye (yellow) for natural fabrics, and the flower is also an excellent honey plant.
Eremurus belongs to the Xanthorrhea family (subfamily Asphodelica), in total there are about 70 species, varieties and hybrids. The main habitat is considered to be the desert and steppe areas of Southeast Europe and Central Asia.
The massive root of the eremurus resembles an octopus or a spider - twisted, thickened roots extend (almost horizontally) from the disc-shaped Cornedonian, the diameter of which reaches 15 cm. The foliage in the root rosette is keeled or triangular, flat. The peduncle is single, tall, leafless. The inflorescence is cylindrical, racemose, elongated, bell-shaped or wide-open flowers on individual pedicels arranged in a spiral. Each flower opens for only 1 day, eremurus blooms from bottom to top. The fruit is a rounded, cracking three-nested capsule, the seeds are wrinkled.
The flowering period depends on climatic conditions and species, it lasts from 10 to 40 days, after which the entire aerial part of the eremurus dies off and the plant goes into a state of dormancy.
To begin with, consider the species eremurus and start with the high ones:
Medium-sized eremurus (up to 160 cm) include the following types:
A conditionally stunted species can be called eremurus comb (E. cristatus), the maximum height of the stem is 80 cm, the inflorescence is narrow, dense, up to 40 cm in length. The flowers are campanulate purple with a long brown stamen.
Species Eremurus, of course, are good, but hybrids are the most popular. Ruiter (Ruiter Hybrids), the earliest flowering among all representatives of the genus, the height of the peduncles of which can reach 150 cm.On sale you will find a huge number of varieties of flowers of different colors, consider a few of them:
It should be noted 2 more hybrids - Shelford Hybrids or Eremurus isabellinus (E. × isabellinus) and Hybrids (Higbdown Hybrids), they are still rarely found on sale and are collectible Eremurus.
Erantis is a small plant with white or yellow buds that bloom earlier than most other garden dwellers. Because of the early flowering, it received a second name - spring plant.
The prevalence in nature is extensive: fields are found in southern and northern Europe, near the mountains of Japan, as well as in North America.
Vesennik is a low-growing plant with herbaceous leaves, its height reaches 14-26 cm. It belongs to the buttercup family, belongs to the group of poisonous flowers. There are at least 7 species of erantis, some of which (for example, lobulata) are little known in Russia.
The root of the plant has a tuberous shape, and the leaves are painted in a rich green color. Their structure is finger-divided, and the flowers consist of 5-7 sepals. The diameter of the spring reaches 3-4 cm. Different varieties have their own shades: multi-colored stamens, white sepals interspersed with pink, pale lemon buds.
Fact! Erantis begins to bloom in early spring, when the snow is still on the ground. Flowering ends in 14-25 days.In southern climates, a plant older than 2 years blooms in January.
After flowering, fruits are formed, which contain seeds. They can be used to breed erantis.
There are 7 types of erantis that are grown in gardens. One of them can be used as a pot culture, but because of the poisonousness of the plant, keeping it at home with animals and small children is unsafe.
Winter erantis or wintering spring appeared in Southern Europe. It takes root well and blooms profusely on loose, airy soils. It belongs to the early varieties, tolerates frost normally. Flowering begins at the first thaw or a little later.
Interesting! The main feature of the winter erantis is the closing sepals. In cloudy weather, the buds will be firmly squeezed, protecting from excess moisture.
By the beginning of summer, the ground part of the erantis dies off, but tubers are still developing underground. There are 3 varieties within the group:
Star erantis in spring, the vastness of the Far East is covered with bright flowers of a star spring. This species is used for bouquets, grows up to 20 cm in height in good conditions. Leaves are completely absent on the stem. Usually found in white.
It got its name from the sepals that make up the shape of the star. Grows on well-moisturized soils in dark forest zones. Star erantis blooms for a very short time - less than 2 weeks.
Peristoncut Springbinder common in the Japanese islands and has snow-white flowers with yellow nectaries and blue stamens - the most unusual type of erantis.
A hybrid variety that combines the properties of winter and Cilician spring. When planting, it can be seen that the tubers of erantis are very large, and after flowering, seeds do not appear.
The species belongs to long-flowering, consists of several varieties:
Siberian erantis from the name it is clear that the flower in the wild is often found in Western and Eastern Siberia. Large fields are found along the banks of river beds, in high-mountain valleys. Can often be seen in snowy fields. Its stems are weak, but beautiful white flowers are located on them. The inflorescences open in May, and in June the plant retires.
Long-legged spring distributed in Central Asia. The height of individual plants reaches 25 cm. It begins to bloom late - in May. The buds are large, bright. By the end of June, it completely fades and forms spherical bags with seeds.
Cilician spring began to spread from the south of Europe and Asia Minor. It begins to bloom 12-16 days later than the winter variety.
It is found more in the wild than in gardens due to poor flowering. Not suitable for growing in frost-resistant areas.
It differs in the period of the first buds with bright purple petals with a red sublayer. It grows low - up to 10-12 cm.
The plant is not too whimsical to care for, but there are points to consider when planting:
Before planting, be sure to loosen the ground. When choosing a place for planting erantis, take into account that excess moisture will accumulate in the lowlands in the spring, from which the roots will begin to rot.
Advice! Use a soil acidity test before planting flowers. It is sold in the form of litmus strips and helps to determine the type of soil - neutral, acidic or alkaline.
After choosing a convenient place, proceed to planting erantis:
Vesennik is an easy-to-maintain flower that is ideal for beginner gardeners. Follow the simple recommendations, and it will delight you with beautiful buds and no problems for a long time:
The mature plants do not need to choose a particular type of water. Freshly planted seeds and tubers should be watered with cold water, which has settled for some time. Subject to simple recommendations, erantis will delight with abundant flowering in one place for 5 years.
The spring can be propagated by seeds and tubers. It multiplies easily without human participation - self-dispersing. To protect the garden area from the abundant flowering of erantis in subsequent seasons, the varieties that form the seeds should be controlled.
In a similar way, the spring plant reproduces in natural conditions. The same thing happens in the open field.
The wind can carry seeds far from the mother plants. Erantis planted by self-scattering does not require special care.
Erantis seeds are sown in the fall after harvest, the place is chosen in the shade. Plants will begin to bloom in 3 years, and the first shoots will appear in spring (very high density and germination of plants).
Stratified erantis seeds are planted in spring. For the procedure, you need to put them in a polystyrene tray, into which the soil is successively filled: drainage, peat or sand. After the formation of the soil, you need to moisten it well (use a spray bottle). Seeds are spread on top of the mixture and sprinkled with a thin layer of peat, covered with a similar tray.
Under natural conditions, you can bury the seeds of erantis in the snow. Choose a place where strong winds will not penetrate so that the top tray does not fly off. For reliability, you can wrap it with scotch tape or electrical tape. For each variety of the spring plant there is its own term for the formation of stems ready for planting. Manufacturers usually note this factor on packaging.
In the first year, only cotyledon leaves are formed, after a few weeks they die off, and a tiny tuber develops inside the soil. Its full formation occurs by the spring of 2 years after planting. Fortified tubers of erantis need to be transplanted to a place where they will grow constantly.
In the first year after planting, erantis will not be able to reproduce with tubers, for this at least 2 years must pass. Some varieties begin to produce daughter tubers only for 3 years.
The process of obtaining a new bulb consists of several stages:
Before planting the spring, the holes need to be watered and seasoned with a mixture of humus, non-coniferous wood and compost. You can achieve a neutral soil pH with ash. Fresh beds are mulched so that moisture is retained in the upper layers of the earth.
The plant in the roots, stems and inflorescences contains poisons that are dangerous for most harmful microorganisms. Diseases and pests do not affect the spring. The only thing that is dangerous for him is gray mold. It arises from stagnant water in the root system. It is important to monitor the moisture content of the earth, remove excess liquid in time so that the plant does not start to rot.
Early flowering of erantis is very "pleasant" to bees. They are happy to collect nectar from it, and then produce useful honey. In the multicomponent composition of varieties of "meadow forbs" or "foothill forbs" there is always a part of the benefits of this plant. Unlike all other parts, its pollen is not poisonous.
Due to the fact that most plant species prefer to grow in dry and sunny areas, coreopsis is well suited for decorating rock gardens and rockeries, and on flower beds you can make a wide variety of compositions using different types and varieties of coreopsis alone.
Small plants can be planted not only in open ground, but also in special containers or garden vases, so it will be easier to arrange them in the flower garden. It is only important that the depth of the container is at least 20 cm.
Tall yellow coreopsis look good against the backdrop of green bushes and lawns, as well as other bright colors such as aconite, iris, dahlia. Low varieties are in harmony with petunia or veronica.
If your garden has sunny areas for laying out flower beds, we safely recommend planting coreopsis on them - planting and caring for it in the open field is simple, and it is quite easy to add bright colors to your landscape with its help. The only rule for decorating flower beds is the selection of plant height depending on the tier of plantings.(3 estimates, average: 5,00 out of 5)