Various types of fungi often appear on tree trunks and stumps. Their living or dead wood becomes a nutrient substrate for representatives of various fungal species.
Some fungi are parasites. They live off the donor tree, gradually growing and destroying living tissues... Others, settling on dead wood, benefit nature: they process biological material, serve as food for birds and animals, and heal humans.
Microscopic and cap representatives of the biological kingdom of fungi settle on living and dead trunks and dead wood.
Growths, mold, cup-shaped formations on the trunk or branches of a tree signal that mushrooms have settled on it... Among them are parasites and symbiotes. The former live off the donor tree, destroying the wood. Others create a symbiosis with a tree, receiving vital substances from it and giving the necessary ones to the tree.
The appearance of fungi on garden trees indicates poor maintenance of garden plantings. In such cases, measures must be taken to save fruit plantations.
Woodland mushrooms, of course, destroy trees. But many of them are edible, useful for human and animal health, and can be used for household needs.
The most famous of the tree fungi infecting the garden:
Some tinder fungi are edible at the stage of milk maturity, but require preliminary heat treatment.
In addition to them, edible polyporus are cellular and winter honey agaric, as well as:
One of the most beautiful representatives - coral blackberry, edible mushroom with an unusual, similar to very light coral, "cap".
Among the conditionally edible mushrooms growing on fallen trunks, dead wood or stumps, the coral blackberry (in some sources - the blackberry) stands out for its extraordinary fabulous look. This species belongs to macromycetes, that is, to fungi with a large and well-developed aerial part.... It is also called neophyse, trellis blackberry, coral hericium and coral fungus.
The mushroom from the hericiaceae family got its name due to the structure of the fruiting body. Branched, irregular, with many short (10-20mm) cylindrical "tentacles", it really looks a lot like a sea coral bush. The brittle spines hanging from the main "branches" do not grow longer than 2 cm. Spores form on them. The coral blackberry is attached to the woody substrate with a short stem.
Milky or snow-white, pale cream or with a barely noticeable yellowish tinge, an openwork spreading mushroom is far visible in a darkened gloomy deciduous forest. Ripening, gericium darkens, becomes sandy beige or brown... When the air humidity rises, it becomes transparent.
On the cut, the flesh of the mushroom is fleshy, very light, white or with a pale pink tinge. The smell is pleasant, mushroomy, slightly pungent. In late maturity, it is dark and tough. The dried "coral" turns brown.
Adult specimens - record holders reach a height and width of 40 cm... The average size is 30, and in Siberian forests it is 15-25 cm in diameter.
It is relatively uncommon, but distribution area includes all Russian forests of the temperate climatic zone, the Far East and Siberia... It has long mastered the territories of China, Japan, Kazakhstan, Transcaucasia, Europe and North America.
Grows singly and in groups in deciduous forests. Closer to the north, it chooses fallen trunks and fallen trees of aspen and birch, to the south - linden, beech, oak, elm. It is rarely found in mixed and coniferous forests. It takes root on fallen trees, stumps and deadwood, in old hollows.
There are legends that in the Middle Ages the coral mushroom was not at all a rarity. But his unusual appearance scared off mushroom pickers, neophytes were called a damn washcloth and considered poisonous.
The mushroom is listed in the Red Book of Russia as a rare species.
Blackberry, like other mushrooms, is a perennial organism. But his the fruiting body ("hat") lives one season - from the second half of July to early October... At this time, the white "coral" is found by mushroom pickers.
Light branchy "bushes" are unique, they cannot be confused with any other representative of the mushroom kingdom.
Other species known as blackberries:
In appearance, it is most similar to Alpine Hericium, and in properties - with comb.
For Alpine blackberries, the substrate is fir, spruce, less often pine. This type of gericium is found in mountain forests, very rarely - on the plains.... Spore-bearing spines are arranged in bunches at the tips of overgrown branches.
The coral blackberry does not have poisonous twins.
The medicinal benefits of this species of hericia are appreciated. Most of them are due to the presence in the composition of phosphorus, calcium, iron, plant proteins, polysaccharides and vitamins.
The most advanced in the study and application of the healing properties of the pharmacologists of Germany and China.
Healing mushroom is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and the entire digestive system... Polysaccharides protect the ulcerated gastric mucosa from stomach acid and stimulate its healing. Stimulates blood flow to the digestive tract and peristalsis. It is a means of preventing cancer processes in the organs of the digestive and excretory systems. Fatty acids, phenols and five polysaccharides with antitumor activity contained in the mushroom act directly on cancer cells, the effect is comparable to chemotherapy.
The healing effect of blackberries on both malignant and benign formations has been proven. It blocks the development of cancer of the breast, lung, esophagus, liver, stomach, is effective in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. It is indicated for varieties of prostate adenoma, cysts, fibromas, pituitary adenomas, myomas. In the course of clinical observations, the tumors resolved or significantly decreased in size. In complex anticancer therapy, it reduces the negative effects of treatment.
Coral mushroom has a good effect on strengthening the immune system, helps to reduce fatigue and stimulates fat metabolism.
Improves the functioning of the respiratory system - bronchi and lungs. Blackberry has a beneficial effect on the activation of hematopoiesis... The positive effect of mushroom preparations on the nervous system has been proven, in particular, for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
Extracts are used in the fight against diseases of a bacterial, fungal and viral nature.
In folk medicine, tinctures and decoctions are used as antidepressants.... Used for insomnia and neurasthenia. It is useful for curing impotence, improving metabolic processes and slowing down the aging of the body.
Interesting unique properties of coral blackberry are used in cooking. Gourmets appreciate the rare mushroom for its good culinary qualities., an interesting kind of ready-made dish and beneficial properties confirmed by scientific research.
Coral Hericium is considered conditionally edible.: in cooking, young specimens are used after mandatory preliminary processing. As they mature, these mushrooms begin to taste bitter.
Despite the fact that the species is in the Red Book, in many regions mushroom pickers often find it, harvest it, share cooking recipes and taste sensations. In the national cuisines of other countries, blackberry dishes are also popular with connoisseurs.
Blackberries are stewed, fried, boiled, cooked in batter, added to fillings... They are harvested for the future by drying, salting or pickling. Dried is used whole or ground into powder.
Blackberries add a delicate aroma to dishes. The taste is bright, according to other sources - delicate and very pleasant, with a nutty tinge. When boiled, it resembles the taste of shrimp or squid in taste and structure.
Foodies share how they cook coral mushroom:
Coral blackberry is a beautiful creation of nature. The mushroom has good taste and high healing properties.... In recent decades, the growing area has expanded, as has the frequency of detection of blackberries. Moreover, in Russia, the species is under state protection. The task of connoisseurs is to preserve the unique coral mushroom for future generations.
Mushrooms growing on trees and stumps are edible or unsuitable for food. They use wood as a nutritious substrate. Some types of such fungi parasitize, violating the integrity of living tissues, others process dead wood, become food for birds and animals. Medicinal compositions are prepared from some types of woody mushrooms.
Honey mushrooms also grow in large groups and, as a rule, every year in the same places. Once you have found a colony, you can “graze” on it annually.
These mushrooms grow in bunches on rotten stumps and fallen trees. The honey agarics' hats are brown, slightly reddish in wet weather, in dry weather their color is closer to beige. The very center and edges of the cap are darker than the whole
Autumn honey fungus (Armillaria mellea)
hat. On the leg, honey agarics have a ring (in young mushrooms, the film of the ring tightens the inside of the cap), the leg itself above the ring is smooth, below it is scaly, and in the lower part is hollow.
Sulfur-yellow false foam (Hypholoma fasciculare). © Rasbak
Caution! Summer honey fungus can be confused with a poisonous sulfur-yellow false foam. They differ in the leg (in the false frog it is smooth, without scales) and the color of the sulfur-yellow honey fungus is really sulfur-yellow, bright, with an orange center of the cap. And one more thing: the false mushroom smell is very unpleasant, while the real one has a pleasant mushroom smell. If this, of course, tells you something.
Some woody mushrooms have medicinal properties. The fruits of these species are used for the preparation of medicines.
Another name is Larch sponge. Agaricus grow on deciduous and coniferous trees. The mass of an adult mushroom reaches 10 kg. As a rule, the fruits are presented in the shape of a hoof, but oblong-cylindrical agaricus can also be found. Surface colors vary from grayish white to pale yellow.
Larch sponge is a part of sedatives. Also, the mushroom has a laxative, hemostatic and sweat-controlling effect.
The lacquered tinder fungus is better known as the Reishi Mushroom. It is very popular for its antineoplastic and immunomodulatory properties. Reishi also improves blood circulation, metabolism, and normalizes blood pressure.
Polypore grows on dead wood. It is distinguished by a bright ovoid or kidney-shaped cap in shades of purple, red, black and brown. The surface of the cap is so smooth that it looks like it has been covered with a layer of varnish. Reishi's flesh is buffy. It does not have a pronounced taste and aroma.
Synonymous names - Chaga, Birch mushroom. The circumference of the fruit varies from 5 to 40 cm. The beveled tinder fungus does not have a definite shape. It is a black outgrowth with many small cracks on the birch bark. Sometimes tinder fungi of this species can be found on alder, mountain ash, maple, elm.
Mushrooms have an antispasmodic effect. They are also known for their bactericidal, diuretic and reparative properties.
Most wild mushroom species grow on soil. There are several representatives of the mushroom kingdom who prefer tree bark to soil. Among them there are edible, inedible and poisonous species. Some varieties have valuable medicinal properties.
Sheep mushroom is boiled and used in the preparation of broths and soups.
In recent years, oyster mushroom has gained some fame as an object of cultivation in households and farms. It can be found both on store shelves and on the menus of various catering establishments.
In nature, oyster mushrooms grow from May-June until the first frost, preferring to settle on aspen and oak, linden and birch, elm and mountain ash. In short, like the edible species of xylotrophs, oyster mushrooms grow on deciduous trees.
The rounded and fan-shaped shape of the cap is completely non-leathery to the touch (in contrast to the inedible counterparts). Color from gray to gray-brown, mushroom aroma is practically absent. The size of the mushroom is quite large: the diameter of the cap varies from 5 to 20 centimeters. The flesh is firm and rather fleshy.
Dishes that can be prepared from oyster mushrooms are very diverse. It is applicable both as a main ingredient and as a side dish or additive. There are hundreds of recipes for aspic and pancakes, goulashes and pies, casseroles and cutlets with this mushroom. Oyster mushroom is a very versatile product.
In addition to the culinary merits, one should not forget about the healing qualities of oyster mushrooms. So, its water and alcohol extracts are used to prevent atherosclerosis and hypertension. Heavy metal salts and radionucleides are more actively excreted from the body when oyster mushrooms are consumed. The polysaccharides that make up the fungus inhibit the growth of malignant neoplasms, and also activate the activity of the thymus gland, helping to strengthen the immune system. In the composition of oyster mushrooms, compounds capable of destroying cholesterol were also seen.
Thus, it is not easy to overestimate the importance of oyster mushrooms in both gastronomy and medicine. It is only important to remember that cooking with this mushroom involves mandatory heat treatment. Oyster mushroom spores can be dangerous, since their entry into the lungs can provoke an allergic reaction.
The listed types of edible mushrooms that prefer trees to soil do not exhaust their entire list. Polypore birch and fistulin (also referred to as liverwort for its characteristic appearance), golden scaly and winter mushroom - for an inquisitive mushroom picker there are many more secrets that these curious creations of the wildlife world are ready to share.
Mushrooms are destructive to trees. It touches both the bark and its roots. Usually fruiting bodies are formed on old, diseased, damaged, insect-infested trunks. They can affect both forest plants and fruit crops.They often provoke the development of various rot and other diseases. As a result, the tree may die completely.
But some of the tree fungi, for example, the tinder fungus, are called forest orderlies, since they contribute to the decomposition of old and diseased wood, enriching the soil with nutrients.
Mushroom pickers, conducting a "quiet hunt", most often look at their feet with concentration, looking for the desired prey among the grass. However, some of the fungi prefer to grow on the trunks and roots of trees. And among these mushrooms, you can find quite tasty and aromatic specimens suitable for cooking various dishes. If you do not have a forest overflowing with mushrooms nearby, then you can grow them for yourself with your own hands, using recently cut stumps.
The description of volvariella is difficult to find even in some identifiers. This is because it is not popular with mushroom pickers in our country. In China, it is considered a delicacy mushroom and is grown in special substrates. In Russia, there are three types of volvarella, but only one is edible. This is a silky volvariella. Her hat is white, puffed with light yellow fibers. Outwardly similar to a bell, in adult specimens it opens and becomes about 15 cm in diameter.
The red-yellow row looks like a honey mushroom. The color of the cap varies from pale pink to bright red, and the stem and plates are always yellow. This is a conditionally edible mushroom. It is not poisonous, but has poor taste and smells unpleasant when cooked. Some mushroom pickers advise pre-soaking the row in cold salted water.
The cap of the deer mushroom is brown or gray-brown, the stem is long, white, the plates are pale pink. Grows in any type of forest, very drought tolerant. It is used for pickling and pickling, pre-soaked.
Quiet hunting is a favorite hobby of many Russians. To avoid unpleasant consequences, remember an important rule: if you are not sure, do not take it. If you have any doubts about whether a mushroom you find is edible, do not put it in the basket.
Walking through the forest, almost all mushroom pickers look at their feet, and this is not surprising: most edible mushrooms settle in the soil, and it is on its surface that you should look for them. However, there are also such mushrooms that you will not see on the ground: they try to climb higher, climb up the trunk of a tree, sometimes several meters.
The most famous of these mushrooms is honey agarics, the very name "mushroom" means "mushroom on a stump", which is why many unrelated species are hidden under it. But besides honey agarics, a huge number of mushrooms settle on the trees. These are cap mushrooms (scales, oyster mushrooms) and tinder fungi resembling hooves, shelves, shells growing one above the other, floors. As with terrestrial mushrooms, what we see is that the fruiting bodies of the mycelium (mycelium) develops inside the wood, destroying it. Therefore, such mushrooms are called wood destroyers, or xylotrophs.
Some of them live on dead trees, stumps, dead wood. Such mushrooms, vigorously destroying wood, perform the role of forest orderlies. Without them, the land would have long been littered with dry trunks and branches, and the soil would have no nutrients left for the growth of new generations of trees. By destroying dead wood, fungi turn it into soil.
Other fungi, settling on living trees, destroy the forest. Their spores get inside the tree through various damage to the bark, branches, roots.
But of this variety of species, only a few are edible. We, as mushroom pickers, are primarily interested in mushrooms for gastronomic purposes, so the main thing is to learn to distinguish mushrooms by their edibility or toxicity. Usually they pass by the mushrooms on the trees without noticing, because even among experienced mushroom pickers, few realize that such mushrooms are edible and even tasty.
There was once a case. We return from the forest, it was in the middle of May, with two huge packages. A neighbor sitting on a bench near the house asks curiously: "What are you talking about?" "Tinder" - we answer. "What are you going to do with them?" "Let's fire and eat." You should have seen, dear reader, at that moment the eyes of an old woman. Pity, fear, surprise and even disgust were read in them. And in the bags we had really tinder fungi - young pestles (dummy!).
Popular names: pestle, pestle, pestle, hare, elm... The fungus prefers broadleaf trees. In the middle lane, it can be found more often in parks than in forests - on ash, maple, beech, sometimes on willow.
Tinder fungus appears at the end of May. Starting from mid-May, we check those trees on which pestles were harvested in previous years, so as not to miss them, because they grow quickly, and after a week the grown mushroom can only go to mushroom broth or dry.
Over the summer, there are several waves of its growth. The last individual specimens can be found in late August - early September.
In Georgia, they prefer the variegated tinder fungus to the rest of the mushrooms, calling it simply "tree mushroom", despite the fact that in August, when it grows, the mountain forests are full of mushrooms, yellow mushrooms, and honey mushrooms.
Yes, indeed, at a young age, the pestles are very delicate, fragrant, fleshy, when you fry them with an incomparable aroma spreads throughout the house. But tinder fungi grow quickly, age and age, although even in this form they make an excellent fragrant mushroom broth, although the mushroom after that will have to be thrown away.
The variegated polypore is noticeable in the forest from afar, huge saucers whiten on the fallen trees. The large fruiting bodies of this tinder fungus are often saddle-shaped. On a yellowish cap there are large brown scales. Thick, short stem lateral or eccentrically located to the cap, dark brown at the base, dense and hard, even in young mushrooms.
Popular names: yolks, witch dough. The sulfur-yellow tinder fungus settles on broad-leaved trees: oaks, elms, walnuts and Manchurian nuts, less often on poplar, willow, birch, alder. In Siberia, this mushroom lives on larch trees. It begins to grow in late May and early June. It can appear on the same tree a second time, in the middle of summer or in August.
Once we saw a young yellow yolk in mid-October - something yellow was lying on the stump, they approached, it turned out that a recently hatched, still quite soft mushroom is growing. This is how this mushroom is described in one book: "Imagine that inside the trunk of an old hollow oak tree, the goblin threw up a yellow dough, it" escaped "and crawled out through the cracks and crevices of the bark, and it froze - in bubbles and influxes." The mushroom is edible just in the "dough" stage, when young it can be so soft and tender, it tastes like an omelet. It is important not to miss, the fruiting body ages quickly and becomes old.
The liverwort got its name for its bloody color and dense fleshy flesh - on the cut, the mushroom really looks like a piece of liver.
The liverwort resembles a tinder fungus in shape, it has a semicircular cap and a side short leg. The color of the mushroom is reddish-brown or orange-brown. The liverwort grows on living trees, mainly oak, chestnut, less often other deciduous trees. Although we have seen a liverwort growing on the roots of an old tree stump.
This mushroom can only be harvested when it is very young, later the flesh coarsens and becomes tough. In its pure form, this mushroom is very sour in taste, so it is best to add it little by little, either to the marinade or to the general roast for color. If you want to taste just its taste, then it is better to pre-soak the mushroom in salted water with the addition of a pinch of soda for several hours, then fry. For our taste, when we tried the fried liverwort, the mushroom has no taste! Something crispy with a slight sourness.
These are large, beautiful and rather tasty mushrooms, which have recently been grown on an industrial scale in many countries.
At first glance, the name comes from the fact that mushrooms are, as it were, hung on the trunk of a tree, like shelves are hung on a wall. But most likely the word "oyster mushroom" is associated with the word "spring" - spring. The fungus appears in the spring, in May. For the normal development of fruiting bodies, oyster mushrooms need a period of slight cooling and a field of good heat. This kind of weather often occurs at the very beginning of summer and autumn. In the middle of summer, oyster mushrooms are rare.
Oyster mushrooms settle on dead deciduous wood, less often on living trees.
At first glance, all oyster mushrooms are very similar, and the more surprising is the fact that under this name mushrooms are combined not only of different species, but also of different genera.
This mushroom is named so because a dense colony of fruit bodies in contact with each other, growing several floors, really resembles a colony of oyster clams.
Oyster mushrooms are also light - beige or brownish, and dark - gray, brown-gray with a purple tint. Young mushrooms are sometimes almost black. As they grow, dark-colored oyster mushrooms brighten. The oyster mushroom has almost no legs.
Oyster mushrooms bear fruit until late autumn, often thaw after the first frost and continue to grow. Young oyster mushrooms are delicious, they go well to heat, they also give a delicious mushroom broth. Old oyster mushrooms, like other tinder fungi, become tough and unsuitable for consumption.
Unlike ordinary (oyster), it mostly has a rather long curved leg, eccentrically located in the cap. The color of this mushroom is always light - cream, sometimes with a golden tint.
Oyster mushroom is easy to distinguish from other oyster mushrooms by the plates: they run down almost to the bottom of the leg, passing into the ribs and forming bridges. The lower part of the legs is entirely covered with a mesh convex pattern of these bridges.
Oyster mushroom prefers oaks and elms, but can grow on birches and mountain ash. It is less cold-resistant, fruiting ends earlier than oyster oyster mushroom.
Unlike the previous species, pulmonary oyster mushroom can also grow on conifers, but more often you will see it on the trunks of oak, birch, aspen, beech. Its lateral fruiting bodies with a short pubescent stem also form large clusters. The pulp of this oyster mushroom is more tender, but rather elastic.
This species is also cultivated, but on a smaller scale.
Having tasted oyster mushroom pulmonary, carob-shaped and oyster mushroom, we came to the conclusion that pulmonary oyster mushroom is significantly inferior to the rest.
Other names: autumn oyster mushroom, alder oyster mushroom, willow pig... On the dead wood of coniferous and deciduous species in October - November, you can see a mushroom that looks like an oyster mushroom. Actually, earlier mycologists considered it to be one of the types of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus), then, according to some microscopic features of the spore-bearing layer, as well as the structure of the pulp, this fungus was isolated into a separate biological genus Panellus. The Russian name - late oyster mushroom - remains.
The main difference between the late oyster mushroom and the rest of the oyster mushrooms is the gelatin-like layer of pulp under the skin of the cap. The surface of the cap is olive-colored, at the edges it is darker, greenish-brown, closer to the stem it is brownish-ocher, all covered with thin felt. In wet weather, the mushroom becomes slightly slimy. The plates of this mushroom do not descend on the stem, like in oyster, pulmonary and carob-shaped oyster mushrooms. The mushroom is edible, but not everyone likes its bitter taste and rubbery flesh, it is not for everyone.
The fungus grows on rotten stumps and dead wood. Sometimes orange oyster mushroom can be found on sick or dying trees (birch, aspen, linden). Orange oyster mushroom grows in October-December and is considered one of the most beautiful winter mushrooms - a true decoration of our forests. The cap is ocher-yellow in color with a curled edge with white or yellowish felt pubescence, which makes it appear whitish. The fungus grows so tightly to the wood that the cap breaks during collection. The orange oyster mushroom has no leg. The pulp is watery, rusty-yellow without much smell at a young age. In some sources, the smell of orange oyster mushroom is compared to the fruity or melon aroma. Older specimens have an intolerable smell of rotten cabbage.
In most cases, the mushroom is inedible due to its tough pulp and unpleasant odor. However, in some regions of Russia, young mushrooms are eaten. We are sure: it is better to admire orange oyster mushroom, although it looks quite appetizing in winter.
Popular names: deer mushroom... Throughout the summer and autumn, on stumps, fallen trees, on heaps of sawdust, bark, small branches, you can see reindeer roaches.
The cap of this mushroom is gray-brown in color, gray-pink plates and a long white stem with longitudinal fibers.
Deer roach is widespread on all continents except Antarctica. The fungus is fairly common in all types of forest. It also grows in dry times, when there are few other mushrooms in the forest. The mushroom is considered edible, it is even salted and pickled, although it remains unpleasant even after boiling. In some foreign sources, the mushroom is classified as inedible.
Other names: yellow-red honey agaric... This beautiful, large mushroom grows on the stumps of coniferous trees, most often pine, or near the stumps, on the roots.
The main color of the mushroom is yellow. But the yellow background of the cap and legs is densely covered with numerous velvety-fibrous dark-red scales. On the cap of a young mushroom, the scales are so densely arranged that the yellow color under them is not visible, the cap looks entirely red-purple.
The row is yellow-red, although the mushroom is harmless, it is tasteless, and some mycologists recognize it as inedible because of the bitter taste and smell of rotting wood.
Silky volvariella is one of the most beautiful lamellar mushrooms. Its white cap is covered with yellowish silky, fine fibers. Seeing this mushroom for the first time on the trunk of a dead tree, I admired the unusual fluffy hat for several minutes.
Read more about it here.
Popular names: winter honey agaric. This mushroom grows in October-November, but in warm, mild winters, the growth of the fungus in the southern regions continues until spring. He then freezes, then thaws, but lives. The winter mushroom grows, like the honey agaric, in large "bouquets", sometimes several dozen mushrooms crawl out of the crack in the bark.
Mushrooms are very beautiful: their caps are even, shiny, golden yellow in color. In a leafless late autumn forest among the dark trunks, the hats seem to glow. The legs of the mushrooms are hard, fibrous because of this, inedible. The hats are fried, pickled, cooked into soup, dried. Thin mushroom pulp dries very quickly.
The winter mushroom has long been cultivated in Japan, and it is grown not only on wood, but also in special jars on a nutritious substrate.
It grows from August to October on dead trees, participating in their decomposition, mainly prefers conifers, but can also be found on deciduous trees. Fruiting in small groups. The mushroom is deadly poisonous! Contains toxins similar to the toadstool.
The bordered gallery is sometimes mistaken for a summer mushroom, which also grows on dead wood in dense colonies. More detailed description.
In our review, we did not talk about the mushrooms, but they should be discussed separately.
Further below we will talk about the inedible, but still notable other tinder fungus.