Growing onions is a seemingly simple task, but in reality it does not always give the expected result. Difficult weather conditions, pests and diseases often deprive the gardener of a good harvest. However, many troubles can be avoided by taking a number of preventive measures when preparing the bulbs for planting.
Onions are an unpretentious garden plant that is grown throughout our country. It is difficult to imagine Russian or any other cuisine without this vegetable. Therefore, onions can be found in every vegetable garden - whether it be a dacha of a city dweller or a country man's estate. However, despite the apparent ease of cultivation, there are certain subtleties that should not be neglected.
Onion lovers grow various varieties of this crop.
To get a good feather in the summer and healthy, beautiful bulbs by the fall, the seed must be properly prepared for planting. Selecting seeds, treating them from pests and diseases, soaking to stimulate growth are the main preventive measures to ensure a good harvest. There are different methods of seed treatment. Through trial and error, each gardener selects the right option for himself.
Preparing the bulbs for planting is the first and very important step in growing a crop. It doesn't matter if you bought planting material in the market, in a store, or use your own seeds - the correct treatment of the bulbs will largely determine the future harvest.
Seed preparation consists of:
Before proceeding directly to preparation, the onions are sorted out, removing all rotten, spoiled or simply suspicious specimens. Dry tops must be carefully cut off without damaging the green tips that have turned on. This operation promotes friendly germination and slightly accelerates germination. Along the way, you need to pick off all the dry scales, which are easily separated.
Bulbs planted with onion skins do not develop well. The fact is that the scales not only impede growth, but also release harmful substances into the soil, and this negatively affects the development of the plant.
The remaining healthy bulbs are sorted by size and placed to dry. The seeds are dried for a week in a dry warm place, at a temperature of about +25aboutFROM. It is this temperature and dry air that will rid the onion of the nematode, which does not like heat. The limiting temperature at which this pest can exist is +22aboutFROM.
Growing onions for a feather or turnip depends on the size of the bulbs, so first the seeds are sorted
Surprisingly, the largest bulbs grow from small seeds, so farmers who grow onions for sale leave all the small things for themselves. Large bulbs will delight the gardener with early feathers and seeds for the future harvest.
3 days before planting the bulb, it is necessary to soak it for a day in warm water (temperature + 32 ... + 35aboutFROM). This measure will improve the heating of the sevka and help the excess scales move away. Fitosporin added to the water will serve as a good disinfection for the planting material and will eliminate the need for etching in a solution of potassium permanganate. 20 g of powder dissolved in 1 liter of water will cope with many fungal and bacterial diseases. After soaking, try to peel the bulbs down to a white shirt and place in a plastic bag. In 2 days at room temperature, roots and green tips will appear - after which the onions can be planted.
Biological preparation Fitosporin is used for disinfection of planting material and for soil cultivation.
Warming up in warm water can be combined with growth stimulation. To do this, add Epin or Zircon to the water at the rate of 40 drops per 1 liter of water. These drugs accelerate growth and root formation, as well as increase the immunity of plants to diseases and adverse weather conditions, but for the effectiveness of these funds, it is necessary to acidify the water. You can add a grain of citric acid or, as the instruction advises, 1 g per 5 liters of water.
It is important to remember that growth stimulants do not have disinfecting properties, therefore, the bulbs must be disinfected before planting in the ground. The spores of pathogenic fungi are so small that they cannot be seen without a microscope, so even if the bulbs seem completely clean and healthy, you should not refuse this procedure.
There are various ways to disinfect planting material, but not all of them are as effective as they are said to be.
The most popular remedy among gardeners is potassium permanganate. Before planting, the bulbs are soaked in a dark solution of potassium permanganate, and with a spring planting, the procedure lasts 2 hours, and with an autumn planting - 5 minutes. This is explained by the fact that in the fall you need to plant the bulbs without letting them wake up, otherwise they will freeze in winter.
Potassium permanganate is a universal disinfectant
Copper sulfate is perhaps the second most popular remedy for all ailments. 1 tsp the powder is dissolved in 1 liter of water. The liquid temperature should be approximately +45aboutC. The bulbs are soaked in the same way as in a solution of potassium permanganate - taking into account the season.
Before planting, onions can be soaked in a solution of copper sulfate.
Instead of potassium permanganate, many gardeners use a baking soda solution. To do this, before planting the bulbs, dilute soda (1 hour per 10 liters) in warm water (+ 40 ... + 45aboutC) and soak the seeds for 10-15 minutes.
Soda solution is also used to treat onions before planting.
Soda is also used in the form of spraying when powdery mildew or other diseases appear on the seedlings, but this remedy does not bring the desired effect.
You can often find advice about soaking the bulbs in a salt solution, but this is a controversial opinion. Many experts believe that this measure is useless at the stage of preparing the bow for planting. However, watering seedlings under the root with a salt solution (200 g per 10 liters of water) is an excellent means of preventing onion flies. The same applies to a solution of ammonia. Watering the plants (5 tbsp. Per bucket of water) will rid the seedlings of many pests, and at the same time reduce the acidity of the soil and enrich it with nitrogen.
Many gardeners use a solution of birch tar to treat the bulbs. A controversial method, the adherents of which argue that tar serves as an excellent prevention of many pests and diseases, moreover, it is a natural remedy that does not harm the soil and the culture itself.
Adherents of organic farming prefer birch tar when processing planting material
Peeled and dried onions are kept in any stimulant and then placed in a solution of tar for 2–4 hours. It is simple to cook it - in 1 liter of water you need to dissolve 1 tbsp. tar. The liquid temperature should be about +20aboutC. To prevent the bulbs from floating, cover them with a plate.
Often the bulbs are soaked in a solution of red pepper and soap. The seedlings treated in this way will be protected from many diseases and soil insect pests. To prepare a solution, 3 g of red pepper powder and 1 tsp of green or any other liquid soap are diluted in 1 liter of water.
Red pepper and liquid soap make a solution for processing onions
Preparations, the action of which is based on the work of beneficial bacteria, will help protect onions from rot, bacteriosis and alternaria. One of the most famous drugs, Trichodermin, is available in the form of a powder or suspension. For processing, you can simply dust the onions with powder or soak in a solution prepared according to the instructions.
Planriz has a similar effect. Processing the bulbs a day before planting with a 1% solution of this drug will have both disinfecting and stimulating effects.
When preparing a bed for sowing onions, you need to take into account its predecessors. Crop rotation is especially important for this crop, so you cannot plant the bulbs in the same place where they grew before. Bad predecessors of onions are:
Sevok grows well after:
The onion beds are prepared in the fall. Rotted manure is introduced at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 m2 and dig well. Given the dislike of onions for acidic soils, it is advisable to add wood ash or dolomite flour to the soil. This measure will not only deacidify the earth, but also enrich it with many useful microelements. Mineral fertilizers are not applied for digging, since onions are very sensitive to an increased concentration of salts. It is better to use them as top dressing during the growing season.
A filled and dug-up bed for disinfection is spilled with Fitosporin solution (5 g of powder per 10 liters of water). This procedure can be repeated in the spring before planting.
Sevok processed and planted according to all the rules will delight you with healthy feathers and large bulbs
My method of preparing onion sets for planting is simple but effective. 2 weeks before the intended planting, I sort the bulbs, peel them of excess husk, cut off the dry ends and put them to dry. We live in a private house and use a water heating boiler. It is always warm, the surface temperature is maintained at about +40aboutC is an ideal place to warm the bulbs. After 2 weeks, I soak the seeds in Fitosporin-M solution. Unlike ordinary Fitosporin in powder form, this drug has a dark brown paste consistency. But what is important - it is enriched with humic acids, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus (the packaging always says which additives are included in the preparation). Therefore, by soaking the bulbs in a solution of Fitosporin-M, I simultaneously disinfect the seed and stimulate further growth. The beneficial bacteria contained in the preparation kill pathogens of bacterial and fungal diseases, and humic additives and trace elements have not only a stimulating effect, but also increase the immunity of plants. I plant the bulbs soaked for a day in prepared beds. The onion turns out to be excellent - it does not get sick and does not turn yellow ahead of time.
Fitosporin-M is economical - to prepare a working solution, 200 g of paste is diluted in 400 ml of water. There is a very important nuance here - chlorinated tap water will kill all beneficial microorganisms, so it cannot be used. To soak the bulbs, I dilute 1 tbsp. working solution in 1 liter of water from an artesian well.
Despite its simplicity, onion cultivation does not tolerate neglect. By spending very little time and effort preparing seeds for planting, you can prevent the appearance of diseases and pests in the future, which means that you can reduce the effort when growing a crop. Presowing seed treatment is easy and not burdensome, even a beginner can handle it.
Hobbies play an important role in my life - floriculture, gardening, traditional medicine, pets. I love nature and all living things very much, so I read many articles on various phenomena and laws of life, everything that brings harmony.
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The main reason why processing needs to be done is to warm it up. Large sets should be stored at 22 degrees. Small sets (up to 1 centimeter in diameter) are better stored at temperatures from 2 to 8 degrees.
If the seed is stored in the wrong conditions, it deteriorates, so there is no point in expecting yield from it.
When a summer resident stores onions on his own, he knows his weak points and can roughly assess the condition. If the onion was stored in a cellar, it is enough to take it out and dry it for about three weeks in a dry room.
When buying an onion, nothing is known about its condition. Planting such sets is a big risk. Therefore, there are two cases when processing is necessary:
1. It was stored at the wrong temperature.
If the onions have been stored in ideal conditions, only disinfection is sufficient.
Soaking is optional before planting bulbs, especially if onions are grown commercially.
You should not load yourself with the preparation of the set and in cases of use quality planting materialthat was grown in healthy soil and stored in proper conditions.
Since sevok is mainly purchased on wholesale markets, no one can guarantee that it has a healthy microflora. Therefore, the correct procedure for soaking seeds helps to protect gardeners from unpleasant surprises. This is a loss of yield, and rotting of onions, and contamination of the soil with various diseases and pests.
Before soaking, you must cut the onionto allow the solution to penetrate between the scales and kill pathogens. But you should not get carried away with circumcision, having made a too large cut, the turnip may rot or not release the feather, you can also clean the seeds from the old husk.
When using small planting material, processing is too laborious, so it is better to secure your future harvest at the procurement stage.
If small seeds are purchased, they must be selected at the procurement stage without processing
It is worth giving preference to farms that adhere to growing technology, harvest in dry weather, and have special storage facilities. This eliminates spoilage or deterioration of the properties of the onion in the winter.
The bow shoots an arrow due to non-observance of the temperature regime during storage or due to the planting of bulbs that are too large (from 3 cm in diameter). Unfortunately, no method of processing will help completely eliminate this problem from the plant.
However, there are several ways to prepare planting material to minimize the risk of shooting:
Bulking shots can be prevented by soaking in brine. The oatmeal is dried for a week at 20-25 ° C. Then 50-60 g of salt is diluted in 2 liters of water at room temperature, pour the onion, leave for 2 or 3 hours. There is another, no less effective way of processing - take 40-50 g of salt per 2 liters of hot water (not boiling water), soak the planting material for 6-8 hours.
How to treat onion sets with baking soda before planting:
Salt does not save the culture from pests and pathogens of fungal, bacterial diseases, but it prevents the mass formation of shooters, increases resistance to adverse weather, as well as the yield and quality of the vegetable. Soda solution also allows you to solve 2 problems at once - it protects the plant from shooting and the development of various rot.
Onions aged in saline are very disliked by onion flies and nematodes. Anyone who has problems with these pests, take note:
In potassium permanganate, everyone and everything is pickled, seed onions are no exception. To obtain a solution, you need 10 grams of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water. After 20-25 minutes spent in potassium permanganate, the onion sets are lightly rinsed with water - and it is ready for planting.
The biological product Fitosporin copes well with fungal diseases. Gardeners love it for its safety and availability. We dilute phytosporin according to the instructions: 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water. We soak the onion sets in the resulting solution for about 2 hours. Then we dry it a little and plant it in the garden.
Birch tar is a good antiseptic for fighting pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, its pungent odor repels the onion fly. Works on two fronts! The tar treatment procedure is carried out in two stages:
Soaking onions in ammonium nitrate also kills two birds with one stone. On the one hand, saltpeter has a detrimental effect on onion pathogens. On the other hand, it saturates the bulbs with minerals. Some kind of top dressing, right? We need 20-30 grams of fertilizer per 10 liters of hot water (40 ° C). Dip the onion set in the solution for 15-20 minutes.
For disinfection purposes, copper sulfate, a famous antifungal chemical, can also be used. Dissolve 30 grams of blue powder in 10 liters of water. We soak the onion in the solution for 10 minutes, rinse with clean water and onto the garden bed.
We now know that the treatment of seed bulbs involves two procedures: heating and disinfection. By the way, they can be combined. For example, first heat the onion for a week at a temperature of 24-25 ° C. Then place in salt water for three hours, then rinse, dry and plant.