Powdery mildew is a disease that often affects cultivated plants. This ailment is caused by a parasitic fungus and manifests itself as a white bloom on the leaves. The fight against powdery mildew is very often a priority, as it affects garden and garden plants, and in severe cases, you can lose half of the crop. Downy mildew provoked by oomycetes (microorganisms that resemble microscopic fungi) pose a danger to the garden and vegetable garden. Downy mildew causes damage to crops such as grapes, peaches, gooseberries, beets, cereals, as well as flowers - roses and phlox.
The following pathogens are especially dangerous for cultivated plants:
Downy mildew is one of those unpleasant blooms that not only spoils the aesthetic appearance of the plant, but also causes irreparable damage. Parasitic fungi, spread mainly on the green leaves of the culture. They penetrate deep into plant cells with their mycelium and begin to multiply in the form of a thick white layer that looks like flour. Under the influence of the disease, the leaves can no longer participate in photosynthesis, they gradually fold, fall off and die off.
Phlox starts to hurt, starting from the lower leaves. Then the top leaves are covered with linen, and soon the spots merge, causing enormous damage to the plant. The most favorable conditions for parasitic microorganisms are - temperature 18-20ºC and high humidity. Therefore, the main manifestation of the disease occurs in mid-summer and early autumn. The parasite develops very quickly - within 3-5 days. Overly planted soil and nearby weeds or other plants also contribute to this ailment. It is possible to combat powdery mildew, but it is always better to pay attention to preventive measures.
This type of flowers, like phlox, is rather unpretentious, but it is very interesting for fungal organisms. Downy mildew affects phlox very often. In this case, sulfur is an effective preventive measure. If during the summer you treat the plant with it several times, then powdery mildew treatment will not be needed. Phlox are pollinated with sulfur 2-3 times, adhering to an interval of 10-12 days. This procedure is quite simple: a small bag is made of gauze, into which sulfur powder is poured, then with the help of this bag the bushes are pollinated with sulfur powder.
Starting from the end of May, phlox can also be sprayed with a 1% solution of soda ash or copper-soap solution in the composition: copper sulfate - 25 g, soap - 200 g and water in a volume of 10 liters. The processing interval is one week.
Boric acid solution (you need to take it at the tip of a knife and stir in a five-liter watering can) and a pink potassium permanganate solution are also a good recharge and a precaution.
Do not forget about where and how to plant phlox. The soil must fully provide the plant with nutrients and be free enough for normal growth. It is not worth overloading the land with nitrogen fertilizers - this will only contribute to the development of the disease. And vice versa, potash and phosphorus fertilizers will become not only an additional source of nutrition for flowers, but also excellent remedies against mycoses.
On phlox, powdery mildew spreads from bottom to top, so periodically you need to check the stems and lower leaves for the presence of disease. If white dusting is found, in no case should you wipe it off - this will not eliminate the cause of the disease, but it can lull the vigilance and interfere with the timely provision of assistance to the diseased plant.
If, nevertheless, phloxes are covered with a white bloom, there is no need to despair - there is a treatment for flowers. There are many ways to fight disease. The only condition is that measures should be taken as soon as the disease manifests itself. Typically, the onset of the disease peaks in mid-summer.
If small areas of the plant are affected - several buds or leaves, then they must be carefully cut off and the flower should be rinsed with chemicals that can be purchased in specialized stores. These are different fungicides, as well as the famous Bordeaux mixture.
The latter is nothing more than an aqueous solution, which includes vitriol and lime. Bordeaux mixture can be prepared at home, but then you need to mix the components in the correct proportions: dilute 100 g of copper sulfate and 150 g of quicklime in 10 liters of water. To obtain a 3% solution, you will need: vitriol in the amount of 300 g, lime - 450 g, water - 10 liters. It should be noted that vitriol is one of the most effective and affordable remedies for mealy disease.
Sometimes treatment is given with antibiotics. The following remedies have a good effect: terramycin 100 U / ml, penicillin 100 U / ml and streptomycin 250 U / ml in a ratio of 1: 1: 1. The mixture is dissolved in water and sprayed on the leaves.
It is worth noting that phlox, like any other flowers, are very delicate, therefore, chemical agents often have a detrimental effect not only on the parasitic microorganism, but also on the plant itself. Powdery mildew can be successfully dealt with with folk remedies.
The most common and well-proven folk remedies are:
Treatment of leucorrhoea with folk remedies is based on the action of microorganisms that multiply in large quantities in decoctions and infusions during fermentation, and can suppress the growth of colonies of filamentous fungi (pathogens of powdery mildew), falling on the affected area of the plant. A huge plus is that this method of eliminating the disease does not harm the plant itself.
Powdery mildew is not just a disease, it is a parasitic microorganism that can cause a large number of domestic plants to wilt. There are effective measures against this disease. You can fight the parasite in different ways - these are traditional folk remedies and modern chemicals and even antibiotics. The choice is up to the owner. In order for phlox to grow healthy and have a wonderful appearance, preventive measures cannot be neglected and it is important to provide assistance to the affected plant as soon as the development of the disease becomes noticeable. A gardener's "first aid kit" should always contain vitriol, potassium permanganate, sulfur powder, as well as the necessary knowledge for making homemade recipes.
To ensure proper pest control, you need to be as knowledgeable as possible. The following video will help you with this.
The indicators of the medicinal efficacy of drugs for getting rid of fungal infections directly depend on the timing of the detection of the lesion, as well as compliance with the following measures:
Thinning of thickened plantings and removal of foliage lying on the ground can be considered as additional measures aimed at getting rid of powdery mildew.
Of particular importance is the increase in plant immunity, therefore, feeding with nitrogen-containing fertilizers should be minimized, and the proportion of potassium-phosphorus compositions, on the contrary, increased.
It is in those years when spring is warm and rainy that roses most often suffer from rust. The problem manifests itself even during the period when the plants are blooming. Spores appear as a dusty orange mass. It can be observed near the leaves, also in the area of the root collar.
In the summer, the disease is visible on the back of the leaves. There are peculiar red-colored pads. The appearance of these sporulation negatively affects the plant as a whole. Its functions and abilities are impaired: photosynthesis, metabolism. When the disease develops, the plant loses its decorative appearance. Leaves, flowers and buds begin to be depressed and deformed.
It is important to follow three main rules. First, it is necessary to thin out the bushes, removing dried branches, flowers, every year at the end of summer. Secondly, with the onset of autumn, it is important to process plants with Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate (3%). And, thirdly, roses must be sprayed according to the instructions with chemicals that stimulate the immunity of plants. Suitable, for example, "Zircon", "Immunocytophyte", etc.
The fight against this disease includes the following measures:
You can try to remove rust with this remedy. Mixed 1 tbsp. l. soda, 1 tsp. means used for washing dishes, 1 tbsp. l. vegetable oil, plus 1 gallon of water and 1 tablet of aspirin dissolved in water. The mixture of these ingredients should be sprayed on the plants once every about 1-2 weeks.
Most of all, this problem spreads in those regions where there is frequent precipitation in the second half of the summer. At first, only small dark spots appear. Until the end of July, they can already become large, sporulation is formed on them. Then the leaves begin to fall off, first the upper ones, and then lower and lower. When the disease is very widespread, the leaves darken completely. They begin to dry, and then disappear altogether.
Spores and mycelium of this pathogen tolerate winter well, being on the leaves and shoots of the plant.
Every autumn, it is necessary to spray all the bushes with 3% copper sulfate. This procedure must be performed before the shelter for the winter. The prevention system includes the same measures that are taken to fight the disease.
They include the destruction of all diseased parts of the plant. The leaves are harvested and burned, just like the shoots. Digging also needs to be done, preferably with a turnover of the formation. From ready-made preparations for processing are suitable "Captan", "Fundazol", "Topaz", "Skor".
It should be noted right away that it is most likely that it will not work to cure a rose from black spot with the help of folk remedies alone. This has long been tested by many gardeners. But for prevention, they are great.
You can spray the plant with a solution of water and iodine. The latter needs to be taken 1 ml, which is enough for 400 ml of liquid. Another way is to water the mullein with a solution. It is diluted about 1 in 10, after which it is left to infuse for several days. Such watering is allowed during the period from the removal of the winter shelter and before the buds bloom.
You can process the whole plant with a decoction of garlic and onion husks. Approximately 30-40 g of this waste is poured with water and boiled. After that, the solution should be infused for at least 6 hours.
This disease is familiar to all gardeners and gardeners. The fact is that it affects not only flowers, but also a very large number of different cultures.
Already from the name itself, one can understand that the external symptom of this disease is the presence of a substance that resembles a powder. Its color can be gray, white. Almost the entire upper part of the plant is affected by this disease.
They include several basic tasks:
The simplest, but most important, activities will be useful - pruning all the shoots that are affected by the disease, as well as collecting leaves and destroying them in a fire. The soil is dug up only with the seam turnover. So the pathogens will suffer from lack of air and may die. During the period of awakening of the bush or falling asleep, treatment with copper sulfate or potassium sulfate with copper sulfate is carried out. Spraying is carried out with such means as colloidal sulfur (1% suspension), or soda ash (50 g of substance per 10 liters of water).
There are many ways to deal with this problem as it is so common. One proven method is zonal grout. It is prepared from 1 kg of sifted ash and 10 liters of water. The liquid should be warm. It is necessary to insist the agent for at least 3 days, stirring every 20-25 hours.
Experts note that hybrid tea varieties of rose bushes most often suffer from this disease. Plants usually suffer, which are located in the shade, while with poor air ventilation around. Typically, the problem manifests itself during a period when the humidity is high and the temperature drops sharply.
The symptoms of the disease are as follows. At first, spots of an incomprehensible shape appear. They are purple or red in color. When the disease develops, the leaves wither, weaken. Then they twist and, in the end, just die. The stems suffer from cracks, the buds also begin to die and darken.
If you look at the leaf through a magnifying glass, you can see a cobweb plaque on the reverse side.
Downy mildew or downy mildew can be prevented. It is necessary to regularly remove weeds, as well as destroy fallen leaves. This also applies to shoots, whole plants that have suffered.
Digging with the seam turnover is required every autumn.Nitrogen fertilizers should be treated with caution and applied in moderation. It is necessary to carefully monitor the soil, ventilation and temperature conditions. It is important to ensure that no water gets on the leaves while watering.
For a long time, the bushes were treated against downy mildew with decoctions of horsetail, garlic husks, solutions of ash, iodine and milk. The last remedy is prepared as follows: 1 liter of milk (skim) and no more than 10 drops of iodine (5%) are added to 9 liters of water.
Horsetail decoction is prepared as follows. It is necessary to prepare 1 kg of fresh plant or 150 g of dried one. At night, the raw materials must be soaked in 10 liters of water. After that, the infusion should boil and cook for about 30 minutes. After cooling, the substance must be filtered and diluted in a ratio of 1 to 5.
Although this disease is quite common, it is not yet fully understood. The first symptoms are small dark spots. They can be confusing and can be confused with black spot. But over time, the spots change. They turn red, purple, or brown. Their center is usually lighter, sometimes a hole forms in it.
An obligatory event is pruning. All affected areas, including stems and leaves, are subject to it. Then all the waste must be burned, which will help prevent the spread of the fungus.
Every autumn it is necessary to clean the bushes and the area around them. This will prevent re-infection.
When traces of anthracnose have already been noticed on the rose bushes, it is urgent to apply microbiological preparations. "Gamair" or "Fitosporin-M" are perfect. In the fall, you can treat rose bushes with such drugs as "Ridomil", "Fundazol", etc. It is advisable to alternate them, otherwise the plants become addictive.
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A rose bush can become infected with this disease during a dormant period - in autumn or spring. For example, if there is no proper care, then the spores of the fungus enter the stems through cracks that have appeared due to severe frosts. Another way of infection is wounds, which are formed by improper cutting or processing after it. Weather conditions also contribute to infection - no wind, too high humidity. Also, late fertilization with nitrogenous substances can lead to a deterioration in the condition.
This disease is also called stem cancer. It manifests itself in the form of dark ulcers on the stems that lead to the death of the shoots. Over time, blackheads can also be seen on the ulcers, which help the disease spread.
All shoots that are already damaged by the disease must be removed. But in this case, it is important not to damage the ulcers. Small wounds should be cleaned with a sharp knife, for example, for paper, to healthy flesh. Then they are covered with garden pitch. Every week, diseased bushes must be treated with the HOM fungicide.
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The problem arises under conditions such as too dense planting, cold air and high humidity, as well as improper use of nitrogenous fertilizers. The main symptom of this disease is gray spots. They can be seen on all parts of the bush: leaves, flowers, stems and even buds. With the development of the disease, these spots turn yellow, rotten areas appear, they begin to die off.
Precautions include constant loosening of the soil. Mulching is also important. It is also necessary to apply those fertilizers that prevent the reproduction of fungi. These include manganese-containing preparations. They enhance oxidative processes inside the plant.
It depends on the stage of development of the disease. If it is just beginning, then the following steps must be taken:
If the plant has already been badly damaged, then you cannot do without special substances. It is necessary to spray roses with a solution of "Fundazol" (0.2%). There is one more measure - the most extreme one. Every two weeks, the bushes need to be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid (1%).
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This disease is often difficult to overcome with light decoctions or infusions. But, like other fungal diseases, gray rot can be prevented or eliminated with horsetail decoction.
To completely defeat a fungal disease, you need to perform the whole range of measures to combat the disease. Experienced gardeners give a lot of tips on how to fight the disease, and no less important are tips on how to properly care for a plant that has been attacked by this fungus:
You should refrain from spraying. They contribute to the development of the disease
If you follow all of the above tips, you will soon be able to overcome this disease in your garden.
We can note the varieties of garden strawberries with the greatest resistance to various diseases:
"Black Swan" - late, large-fruited strawberry, high-yielding, with a prolonged fruiting period, practically beardless. The variety of garden strawberries Black Swan or Black Swan is resistant to late blight, gray rot, sclerotinia, verticillosis.
Strawberry "Borovitskaya" - also a late-ripening variety with excellent taste characteristics. It has a high immunity to wilt and root rot. But Borovitskaya's resistance to gray rot is average.
"Carmen" - variety of medium late ripening, disease resistance - high.
"Lord" - mid-late berry, the variety has a rather high immunity to diseases, especially to gray rot.
"Sudarushka" - frost-resistant, fruitful garden strawberry, has increased resistance to gray rot and wilt diseases.
"Alpha" - high degree of resistance to white spot and powdery mildew, medium - to brown spot and gray mold.
"Marvelous" is a mid-early strawberry variety with a fairly high resistance to verticillary wilt and gray rot disease.
"Pandora" - This late garden strawberry is highly immune to gray mold.
"Marmalade" - highly resistant to powdery mildew, verticellosis, diseases of the root system. It is immune to chlorosis.
"Carmen" - productive, winter-hardy, good resistance to diseases, but weak immunity to gray rot.
"Red Gauntlet" - high resistance to damage by diseases and pests, a variety of late ripening.
At the first appearance of symptoms of a particular disease on strawberries, you need to immediately start fighting with it, and all damaged parts of the plants should be immediately removed and burned outside the site.
The main diseases of strawberries include:
powdery mildew, caused by Shhaerotheca macularis
late blight wilt caused by Phytophtora cactorum
white rot of berries, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
black rot, caused by Rhizopus nigricans
Various wilting can also damage the strawberry plantation: verticillous, fusarium. There may also be various types of root rot - late blight black or red, armillariasis, black root rot.
It should be noted that different types of spotting can affect strawberries.: white, brown (red), angular leafy, septoria.
The main dangerous diseases of strawberries will be discussed below, as well as measures to combat them and preventive measures that should be carried out in the spring and autumn in order to prevent the occurrence of diseases.
But it is possible to avoid the occurrence of such diseases by acquiring healthy seedlings, timely combating "harmful" bugs. All diseased plants must be removed and immediately burned outside the site. Particular attention should be paid to the appearance of aphids on the bushes - it is most often a carrier of many diseases, including viral ones.
This fungal disease can very often affect strawberries. If you do not start a fight with it in time, then as a result the plants will be weakened, the yield will decrease.
The main signs of the disease:
if the strawberry is severely affected by powdery mildew, then its foliage begins to curl upward, taking the shape of a boat, while the scaly coating becomes even more noticeable
another symptom is a change in the color of the foliage. In most varieties of strawberries, at the same time, the edges of the foliage become red in color, and in some varieties, at first the leaves brighten, then spots of red-brown color appear on the upper leaf plates
foliage tissue often dies off in spots
if powdery mildew affects the buds, then they also die off
fruit buds, which are damaged by this disease, begin to crumble, deform, practically do not stain, acquire a brown tint and dry
It is necessary to regularly inspect the strawberry plantation in order to detect this disease in a timely manner. It is very important to carry out preventive treatment of bushes in the spring, so that the plants are not affected by powdery mildew before flowering, otherwise the flowers will die, there will be no harvest.
For preventive spring treatment of strawberry bushes from powdery mildew, it is recommended to use the following fungicidal preparations:
Luna Sensation, requires 8 ml per m2
Nimrod, you need 16-24 ml per 1 m2
Also, for the prevention of this fungal disease, it is recommended, together with the above fungicides, to use Fosfiron Mg liquid fertilizer for processing, which contains phosphorus ions. This fertilizer enriches the soil with phosphorus, and also inhibits the development of spores of fungi and powdery mildew.
This type of rot appears on strawberry bushes with strong waterlogging of the soil and in the absence of proper plant protection.
The main signs of this rot appear on the entire vegetative mass of plants in the form of:
The last stage of gray rot is characterized by the following symptoms:
Gray rot actively develops on strawberries under the following conditions:
a lot of weeds
To rid strawberries from gray rot, it is necessary to carry out several treatments with fungicidal preparations (from 2 to 5) during the period of flowering and bud growth.
The most effective remedies for strawberry gray rot are:
Merpan 80 WC, 1 m2 requires 19 g
Frupica SC, for 1 m2 you need 7 ml
Pyrus SC, requires 20 ml per square
For preventive purposes, during the period of bud formation and after flowering, it is necessary to treat strawberry bushes with Bordeaux liquid.
Strawberry varieties that are weakly resistant to gray rot:
This disease develops actively in warm and rainy weather, as well as during stagnation of moisture in the soil. Often late blight develops only in a separate area.
The main symptoms of late blight of strawberries:
the affected tissues become watery, their color changes to light brown, gradually changes to red with a brown tint
if the weather becomes dry and hot, then the development of the disease slows down, and the affected bushes can recover
On berries and flowers, late blight manifests itself as follows:
then dry rot appears in the form of brown spots. It can sometimes hit the berries completely
on ripe berries, spots of yellow color with a gray tint (or purple) appear
affected strawberries have light brown flesh with dark bundles of blood vessels
Currently, you can choose for planting varieties of strawberries that are resistant to late blight. In this case, it is unlikely that you will have to fight this disease, but you will still have to carry out a number of preventive measures. It is advisable to grow this berry crop in high ridges, while the fruits dry out faster and there is less risk of plant disease. You should also mulch the beds, which also reduces the chance of contamination of the strawberries.
Late blight resistant strawberry varieties:
This disease is fungal, the causative agent is ascomycete. It spreads with lightning speed, in a short time it can affect the entire strawberry plantation. In strawberries, not only the roots are affected, but also the entire aerial part. The particular danger of this disease is that it affects all cultivated plants on the site.
The main symptoms of black spot disease in strawberries:
brown spots with a reddish tint appear on the foliage, which dry quickly. Such diseased leaves are the main source of anthracnose.
the root system is also affected. As a result, against the background of anthracnose, strawberries develop root rot, which leads to the rapid death of this berry culture.
This fungal disease can affect berries at all stages of development. It must be remembered that such fruits cannot be eaten.
At the first stage of the disease with black rot, strawberry bushes are treated with fungicidal preparations such as Quadris, Metaxil or Ridomola-gold.
If the disease has already developed enough, treatments with Bordeaux fluid (1%) should be carried out.
To prevent strawberry anthracnose, the following preventive measures should be taken:
planting should not be thickened, the distance between adjacent bushes should be large enough for their normal development
This fungal disease is the most develops intensively in warm rainy weather. White rot spreads over the site with spores that can be carried by insects, wind or rain. In bushes, fruits and foliage are mainly affected.
White rot can affect not only garden strawberries, but also other berry crops on the site.
The first symptom of the disease is white fluff that appears on ripening fruits.
In the first stage of the disease, rotting of the berries is noted, on top of which white fluff subsequently forms. The foliage changes its color, it becomes lighter, then begins to dry out.
There is only one way to fight this disease - to spray the bushes with fungicidal preparations such as Derozal or its analogues.
The main preventive measures are:
Rhizoctonia (black root rot) often affects young strawberry bushes.
On the dug out damaged plants, the following symptoms of the disease are visible:
circular black spots appear on the roots
the roots become brittle and brittle
To prevent the occurrence of black root rot in strawberries, in the spring, trichoderma is introduced into the soil through a drip irrigation system. This procedure should be performed before the buds appear on the strawberry bushes.
Mosaic (or xanthosis) is a viral disease that is usually transmitted through diseased seedlings or seed.
The main symptom of the disease is the appearance on the foliage of spots of a lighter color, located on the leaf plates in a checkerboard pattern, hence the name. And ovaries do not form from most flowers of strawberry bushes affected by mosaic.
Strawberry bushes are affected by this disease through the roots. The main symptoms of the disease are:
To protect and further save strawberries from verticillary wilting, it is necessary to lower the root system of the seedlings for a short time in a liquid biological product Humate K immediately before planting in a permanent place.
The disease is transmitted through plant roots. Strawberries can be affected by this type of wilting at all stages of development.
The main symptoms of such wilting:
at the petioles, the color changes to brown
leaf rosettes dry and begin to fall apart
An effective method of combating fusarium wilting is the introduction of potassium oxide into strawberry beds. They should also be mulched with vinyl film.
The main signs of the disease are:
To prevent the development of this disease, strawberry bushes are treated with Bordeaux liquid (3% solution) before the active growing season.
The greatest resistance to white spot, according to scientists, is the strawberry of the Bohema variety.
Strawberry varieties can be called resistant to brown spot:
These diseases affect different varieties of strawberries quite often. In order to prevent their appearance, it is necessary to provide plants with good care with mandatory preventive treatments of strawberry bushes with fungicidal preparations, pest control, and regular application of mineral fertilizers.
Observing the rules of agricultural technology for growing cucumbers, you can protect them from infection with powdery mildew. So, you need to make sure that there are no plants within a radius of 20 m that are sick with this fungus.
Basic rules for the prevention of powdery mildew on cucumbers:
To prevent infection with powdery mildew, planting cucumbers is treated with the following compounds:
Ready-made preparations "Topaz", "Quadris", "Planriz" and "Strobi" can be used to treat powdery mildew on cucumbers, but they are more effective in preventing the disease. They can be sprayed with seedlings, which have 5 leaves each. Before flowering, processing is carried out every 2 weeks.