The cypress plant (Cupressus) is a member of the Cypress family. This genus is represented by evergreen trees and shrubs, the crown shape of which is pyramidal or spreading. This plant has existed on planet Earth for a long time, its remains have even been found in the layers of the Tertiary period. According to information taken from various sources, this genus unites from 14 to 25 species. Some experts believe that cypress comes from the Mediterranean, but other researchers are confident that representatives of this genus have long been found in the subtropics and tropics of North America, for example, in California, because it was brought to European countries from there. However, in support of the theory that the cypress comes from the Mediterranean, there is an ancient Greek legend about a slender young man named Cypress, who killed a horse that belonged to the god Apollo, for which he was turned into a tree. Under natural conditions, such a tree can have a height of 25 to 30 m. However, the plant cultivated in indoor conditions is not very large, since it was bred by breeders as an indoor cypress for growing in a tub or pot.
Ornamental cypress, which is cultivated in pots or tubs, unlike natural shrubs or trees, is not so large. Their crown shape is the same, as are the soft stems, which are covered on all sides by scaly foliage, which has the shape of an elongated rhombus. The leaf plates are colored dark green with a slight blue tint. The fruit is an egg-shaped cone with thyroid scales, it is under them that the seeds are located.
Often, inexperienced growers take the cypress (Chamaecyparis) for home cypress (Cupressus), which is very similar to it, but has greenish needles. However, there is nothing wrong with that, since the care for both of these plants is practically the same. But before you bring a cypress into your home, you must take into account that it is highly demanding in care and needs special growing conditions.
In order for a home cypress to grow and develop within normal limits, it will need proper care and suitable growth conditions, which should be as close to natural as possible.
Such a southern culture requires a large amount of scattered bright light, but in the afternoon it is recommended to protect it from direct sunlight. Experts advise placing the bush on an east or north orientation window. Despite the fact that in natural conditions cypresses grow under the rays of the scorching sun, only mature bushes and trees can withstand them. And young cypresses grow in the shade of large trees, so the scorching rays of the sun can harm them.
Best of all, in the summer, such a plant feels at a temperature of at least 20 degrees. At the same time, in the summer months, the bush must be moved outside (to the garden or to the balcony). Cypress reacts extremely negatively to stagnant air, so if in the summer it grows in your house, then the room needs to be ventilated very often. On hot days, the bush is moistened with a sprayer about 3 times a day. It also responds well to a warm shower, and it is also recommended to put a pot with a tree on a tray filled with wet sphagnum or pebbles.
Over time, as the plant grows, it will need formative pruning to keep it lean and effective. The bush should be pruned in the spring, before its intensive growth begins.
In winter, the plant is transferred to a place where it is cool (no higher than 15 degrees). The optimum air temperature for homemade cypress during this period is from 8 to 10 degrees. In order for the bush to develop normally, when caring for it, it should be remembered that in winter it must be cool, and in summer in a warm place. If in winter the plant is at normal room temperature, and even not far from a working heating device, this can lead to its death. For the wintering of cypress, a loggia or an insulated balcony is suitable. And so that the root system does not accidentally freeze, the flowerpot is insulated, for this it is covered with pieces of foam or wrapped in rags.
In the spring-autumn period, watering should be abundant, and with the onset of winter, it should be reduced to moderate. Remember that cypress can be damaged by both a lack of moisture and excessive watering. In this regard, experienced flower growers advise, when watering, remember this rule: the lower the air temperature, the less often the soil mixture in the pot is moistened. For example, if the air temperature is about 8 degrees, then the tree is watered once every 1.5 weeks, and if the temperature is 12-14 degrees, then once every 5-7 days.
In the period from May to August, when there is an intensive growth of the tree, it should be fed once every 30 days, using liquid mineral fertilizer for indoor plants. In winter, it also needs to be fed, but they do it once every 6 weeks.
While the bush is young, it is transplanted systematically once a year in the spring. It is best to carry out this procedure in April or May. Transplant of older specimens is carried out only if necessary. The bush is transplanted by the transshipment method, since its root system reacts extremely negatively to injury or destruction of a clod of earth. Therefore, when the bush is removed from the container, it is not necessary to remove the soil mixture from the roots.
A suitable substrate should have the following composition: sod and leafy soil, peat and sand (1: 2: 1: 1). At the bottom of the container, for a start, a good drainage layer is made, which should reach several centimeters in thickness. It is sprinkled with a layer of new substrate, after which a bush is placed in the pot, and then all the voids are filled with fresh soil mixture. During transplanting, make sure that the root collar of the plant remains above the surface of the substrate.
Cypress reproduction and transplant
It doesn't matter if you bought cypress seeds from the store or collected them yourself, before you start sowing, you need to stratify them. To do this, they are removed on the refrigerator shelf for 3-4 months. Immediately before sowing, the seed is immersed in water for 12 hours, which must be necessarily warm, and it is better to use a solution of Epin or Kornevin for this.
Take a seedling box and at the bottom make a drainage layer of chopped tree bark, which is covered with soil mixture for coniferous crops. Next, the seeds are sown according to the 4x4 centimeters scheme. You can replace a special soil mixture with sawdust or sand, however, slightly grown seedlings will still have to be transplanted into a suitable soil mixture. The crops are harvested in a warm place and make sure that the substrate is moist all the time, but it will be good if at least ½ of the seeds germinate.
After the seedlings have a height of about 50-60 mm, the bushes are transplanted into separate pots, while the root collar of the plants cannot be buried. Then move them to a well-lit place and provide them with timely watering, feeding and humidification from a spray bottle. After only 12 months, the bushes will have a height of about 20-25 centimeters.
Also, cypress can be propagated by semi-lignified or apical cuttings, which remain in sufficient quantities after the tree is trimmed. You only need those segments that have a "heel". All the lower leaf plates are cut off from them, and then they are placed in a jar filled with Kornevin's solution. Remove the cuttings from the solution after about 24 hours, wash them under running water and sprinkle the cut sites with coal powder. For rooting, cuttings are planted in soil mixture for coniferous crops, deepening them by a third. Then the planted cuttings are watered in such a way that the soil mixture is very well saturated with moisture, and then each cutting is covered with a transparent cap (a 3-liter glass jar) on top. Do not forget to clean the shelter for 1-2 hours twice or three times a week for ventilation. Cuttings should take root after 2 months.
REPRODUCTION OF KIPARISOVIK BY CUTTING
Most often, spider mites settle on home cypress (due to excessively low air humidity), and pseudo-scale insects and scale insects can suck juice from its foliage. To destroy such pests, treat the bush with Actellik's solution (1–2 milligrams per liter of water). After 7 days, re-spray the cypress with the same solution.
The cypress growing in indoor conditions is practically not affected by the diseases that are afflicted by trees cultivated in the open field. Most often, problems with it arise from inappropriate conditions for growth or improper care.
If you find the reason for the drying of the foliage and eliminate it, then your tree will stop drying.
Not so long ago, experts believed that cypress was not suitable for indoor cultivation. However, flower growers still managed to refute this statement. Every year, more and more apartments are decorated with coniferous crops, and in private houses with terraces or extensive galleries, cypresses are grown even more often. The types of cypress that are most popular with flower growers will be described below.
In natural conditions, this species has a height of about 15 meters, it is distinguished by its photophilousness and resistance to drought. Young shoots are covered with gray bark, and old ones are dark brown, which, moreover, after some time begins to flake off. Thin-pointed leaf plates are colored greenish-gray.
In natural conditions, you can meet only the horizontal form of this species. This plant is resistant to drought and frost (in case of a short cold snap). The pyramidal crown consists of short ascending branches that are very tightly pressed against the trunk. Reacts extremely negatively to moisture stagnation. Such cypress is highly decorative, and it is very popular in indoor culture, and it is also quite often grown in the open field. There are two varieties of evergreen cypress that are very popular with both gardeners and florists:
Unlike other species, the shape of the crown of this tree is wide-pyramidal, and the branches are hanging and tetrahedral. The bark is colored brownish red. This species is thermophilic and does not tolerate cold, and it can also be harmed by excessively dry air and a lack of moisture in the soil. There are a large number of decorative forms:
This species was introduced from the territory of India. It has a high demand for soil and air moisture. However, it is not very difficult to grow it in room culture.
This species is best suited for indoor cultivation. The erect trunk is decorated with a pyramidal crown. Many branches extend horizontally from the trunk, which are covered with small dark or pale green leaf plates. The upper branches are lighter in color than the lower ones. The buds can be about 38 mm across.
The cone-shaped crown consists of drooping long stems, which are decorated with greenish-gray needles. The small bumps are about 15 mm long.
Often, inexperienced growers consider swamp cypress to be a cypress. This plant also belongs to the Cypress family, but it is a representative of a different genus - taxodiums. Its scientific name is taxodium two-rowed, and it is a deciduous coniferous tree, not evergreen (like all types of cypress trees). Also, kochia scoparia (Kochia scoparia), or summer cypress, which is considered part of the Marevye family, are not cypresses. Despite the fact that the foliage of this plant is very similar to the needles of a cypress, it also refers to deciduous.
Evergreen cypress Reproduction and cultivation in cool climates
Indoor cypresses will fill your home with a pleasant fresh pine scent.
Cypress belongs to the evergreen shrubs of the Cypress family.The plant has a pyramidal or conical crown. In nature, it grows in subtropical and tropical climates - in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in the Mediterranean, some species are found in the Himalayas, China, Sahara, North America.
Any type of cypress can be used for potting. However, to acquire a compact form, the plant will have to constantly cut the roots - in fact, form a bonsai. It is much easier to purchase a cultivated plant that is adapted for growing in a pot.
In the UK, a separate variety was bred for indoor keeping - Goldcrest Wilma. It reaches 2 meters in height. There is also a cypress - a plant very similar in appearance to a cypress, slightly different in leaves. Caring for it is identical to the conditions for growing cypress, so it is often kept on windowsills.