Blackberry (Rubus fruticous) is a berry crop (a shrub from the Rosaceae family) with very decorative qualities, a liana-shaped bush up to 5 meters high and an extended fruiting period. There are many varieties that differ in taste, yield and size of very beautiful shiny black berries.
Blackberry flowers are larger than those of raspberries, located several in small racemes, usually at the top of the stem and branches. Calyx without submission, five-part. There are many stamens and pistils. The fruit is a spherical black complex drupe that does not separate from the canopy of the fruit tree. There are blackberry varieties with yellow, red and black berries. Small round hard bones stand out on the fruit. The berries on the bush do not all ripen at the same time, but gradually, about a month or more. Blackberries bloom from May to autumn. The fruits ripen in July-August.
There are more than 2,000 species of blackberries, including both wild and cultivated varieties. It can be erect and creeping.
When growing upright blackberries, they pinch young replacement shoots. Pruning fruiting blackberries has its own characteristics. The growing shoot is cut off when it reaches 70-90 centimeters. At the same time, the top is removed with a length of about 5 centimeters, and the lateral branches appearing at the same time are shortened so that they branch well.
Erect blackberries reproduce by offshoots and layering, and creeping blackberries (sundew) - only by layering of the apical buds. But single varieties can also give offspring.
Annual shoots of erect and creeping blackberries are green in color with a red or brown tint, covered with thorns that differ in size, shape and color depending on the species and variety. It blooms, as a rule, later than raspberry and due to this, its flowers suffer less from spring frosts.
Blackberry propagates by seeds (sown in autumn), cuttings, root suckers and cuttings, mainly on clay-calcareous deep soil, not rich in humus, in a sunny, sheltered place; care measures - thinning and trimming of lashes, as well as timely garter.
Growing blackberries is similar to growing the usual raspberries. On household plots, it is best to place a blackberry along the fence on a wire trellis in the form of a single-row or two-row planting with a distance between the bushes of 0.75-1 meter, and between the rows - 1.5-2 meters. Fruiting stems are tied to the upper trellis wire, and the newly growing ones are attached to the lower one.
Planting holes are dug to a depth and width of no more than half a meter. Planting is best done in spring. Before planting on the site, organic fertilizers (manure, compost, peat, humus) must be applied at the rate of 10 kilograms per square meter of area. It is advisable to apply mineral fertilizers, although you can do without them, but no more than 50 grams in the planting pit; they must be thoroughly mixed with the soil. In the future, humus and compost are poured under the bushes annually. The yield increases significantly when feeding in June with mullein or bird droppings diluted with water.
Planting care is reduced to weeding, loosening and mandatory watering, especially in the first year of cultivation; with a lack of moisture in the soil, the quality of the berries decreases sharply: they become dry, small, or generally fall off even before ripening.
Blackberries are less frost-resistant than raspberries, therefore, after removing the sprouted shoots in autumn, the annual shoots of the current year are bent to the ground 30 centimeters from the ground. In winter, the fixed shoots must be covered with snow. In regions with severe and very cold winters, bent blackberry stems are covered with thick paper, cardboard, and on top with plastic wrap. Erect blackberry varieties are considered more winter-hardy than creeping varieties.
When pruning blackberries, weak, damaged, underdeveloped shoots are removed along with the fruiting shoots, leaving 5-8 strong shoots in the bush. To increase frost resistance, it is recommended to cut the upper part of annual shoots by 25-30 centimeters. At the same time, they try to leave 10-12 buds on each branch. It depends on the variety, the length of the growing season and the ripening period of the berries themselves.
An effective technique for increasing the yield of blackberries is the mulching of plantations with peat, compost, sawdust and other bulk organic materials.
Blackberries are a close relative of raspberries, but they are less common in gardens, although they are no less valuable. And what - read on.
Blackberries are rich in vitamins A, C and E, and also contain potassium, copper and magnesium. It is used fresh to make marmalade, juice, wine and liquor. Blackberry leaf tea is a traditional remedy for indigestion and is believed to purify the blood.
Berries are eaten like raspberries. They also have thirst quenching properties. In raw and dried form, blackberries are used to make jams, fillings for pies, syrups, tinctures, soft drinks, jellies, pastilles and compotes.
Medicinal tea can be prepared from the leaves: fresh leaves are placed in a closed vessel, where they remain until they fade, after which they are "steamed" without water until they turn black, and then dried in air. Tea prepared in this way acquires a special aroma and taste, reminiscent of the aroma and taste of Chinese tea.
In domestic folk medicine, a decoction of leaves is used for chronic enteritis, for angina (rinsing with decoction). A decoction of branches is drunk with neuroses, shortness of breath. Blackberry root is used as a diuretic for dropsy (15 g of dry root is poured with 300 g of boiling water, taken in a tablespoon after 2 hours). The leafy tops of blackberries, collected in the initial period of flowering, are used as an astringent for food toxic infections, dysentery and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Due to its pronounced antipyretic effect, blackberries are used for acute respiratory diseases, pneumonia.
Taking into account all these properties, as well as the good taste of the fruit, blackberries should be grown, but not among vegetable beds, since they can drown out other crops. The unpretentiousness of the culture, simplicity and ease of reproduction make it possible to grow it with success almost everywhere.
Alexander Zharavin, agronomist
In the wild, blackberries grow in the vastness of the Eurasian continent.
Blackberries are a complex drupe. Leaf plates - with three, five or seven leaves. Branches with thorns are olive in color with a crimson or chocolate tint. The underground part of the shrub is perennial, and the aboveground part is two years old.
Inflorescences are long or short brushes. Fruits are black and purple in color. Harvesting lasts up to 3 weeks.
Blackberries are a wonderful base for jams, preserves, desserts, ice cream and baked goods.
Ancient legends reflected the qualities of the blackberry. According to one of them, the fruits of the blackberry are drops of blood of the titans, which they heroically shed in the battles with the gods. Another story says that the blackberry hid Christ when the Jews were running after him. Christ endowed culture with the unique ability to reproduce with the upper parts of the shoots.
Like people, plants can be friends with each other, be at enmity or be indifferent to each other, that is, be in a way “psychologically and socially” compatible and incompatible. That is why they should not be planted side by side or together indiscriminately. Their predecessors must also be taken into account.
Science studying plant compatibility of various types is called allelopathy.
The incompatibility of some cultures is mainly due to the fact that they have the same diseases and pests, that they oppress one another. The most typical mismatches: tomatoes are incompatible with potatoes, corn, kohlrabi cabbage cucumbers - potatoes, zucchini, gingerbread crops onions - beans, peas potatoes - with tomatoes, pumpkin, cucumbers, celery garlic - peas, beans cabbage - tomatoes, peas, beets - onions, garlic, beans, tomatoes.
Compliance with the compatibility of crops when planting plants is the key to increasing the yield of a crop, obtaining environmentally friendly and healthy fruits.
But what about planting fruit trees? And not all friends are here. The apple tree, for example, does not want to "be friends" with cherries, viburnum, lilacs, golden currants, and pears are enemies of the same crops, plus a plum and a rose. Plum also does not want to be the pear's neighbor. Thus, the conclusion suggests itself: one should not combine enemies when choosing places for planting fruit trees.
If you plant calendula, marigolds, nasturtium, chicory between the beds of potatoes, onions, they will protect these crops from nematodes, the fight against which is very difficult to bear. Marigolds play an interesting "game" with the nematode: they lure her with their aroma, it populates the roots of marigolds and dies.
Flowers of nasturtium, marigolds, calendula scare away many pests butterflies, help in the fight against fusarium.
Turkish carnation saves the site from the invasion of the bear.
Calendula scares away ticks from strawberries, and marigolds - strawberry weevils. Calendula and chicory help onion plants to get rid of nematode infestations.
Dill growing between cabbage and turnip plants saves them from caterpillars and butterflies. It also inhibits the development of phytophthora in tomatoes and potatoes.
Coriander scares away aphids, mice, and prevents woodlice from multiplying. Being a good honey plant, it attracts pollinating insects. In the fall, cut coriander stalks can be spread out outside the house to repel mice.
When combining cauliflower with celery, the infestation of the cabbage fly, which does not tolerate the smell of celery, is almost completely eliminated.
Garlic and onions, planted near currant bushes and among strawberries, scare away kidney mites and keep strawberries from gray rot.
Raspberry growing next to the apple tree protects the apple tree from scab, and the apple tree raspberries from gray rot. And not only. The friendship of the raspberry with the apple tree helps to increase the yield of both crops.
Joint cultivation of cucumbers and dill on the same bed has a beneficial effect on the growth and yield of both crops.
Together with tomatoes and cucumbers, it is recommended to plant a radish, which scares off leaf beetles and spider mites.
Tomatoes protect cabbage, melons, gooseberries, currants from asparagus crackers, aphids, sawflies and moths. The smell of their tops scares away the moth from apple trees. Plant the stepsons torn from the bushes along the edge of the trunk circle - they will create a protective zone under the tree.
Placed in small clumps in "windows" between fruit trees, berry stands are less affected by pests and diseases.
It is useful to grow near-stem circles of fruit trees with a mixture of legumes and melliferous crops. Under their crowns lettuce, radishes, onions on a feather, spicy herbs work well, and under cherries - parsley and lettuce.
Alternate rows of garden crops in the beds, ripening at different times and having a root system of different depths: a row of beets along the carrot bed, salad - between late vegetables, garlic, dill, parsley - among strawberries. A garden with onions can be compacted with radishes, parsley. A good effect is given by alternating rows of onions and carrots. Dill and celery are placed between the rows of cauliflower to fight butterflies. It is good to plant tomatoes next to strawberries, but cabbage plants should not be planted.
Horseradish growing in potatoes scares off bedbugs and boils, and the planted beans do not like the Colorado potato beetle. In turn, the potatoes protect the beans from the cow. Moles don't like vegetable beans. They do not like the smell of garlic and onions. Therefore, the onion and garlic are chopped and laid out in different places of the mole passages. For the same purpose, you can use the waste of fish and fish products, such as herring.
The number of ladybirds largely depends on the presence of aphids in the garden: each spotted bug needs at least fifty of them per day, and in their entire life they eat up to six thousand pests. Even a ladybug larva destroys about five thousand aphids before full development.
Frogs are tireless in getting food. So, the grass frog eats over a thousand insects harmful to the garden and vegetable garden over the summer. The sharp-faced frog feeds mainly on those bugs and smelly bugs that even birds do not touch.
Toads in the garden are less common than frogs, and they eat nocturnal garden pests, moreover, not only countless flies and mosquitoes, but also many caterpillars, slugs and other pests of fruit, berry, vegetable and flower crops. Experienced gardeners and gardeners bring toads to their gardens from the forest to protect the harvest.
Not all ants benefit fruit and berry crops. Red forest ants are most desirable in the garden. Inhabitants of only one average anthill are able to destroy fifteen thousand insects per day, mainly caterpillars - dangerous pests of the garden and vegetable garden.
Bees are one of the most active and necessary workers in the garden. Thanks to their efforts, the harvest of apples and other fruits increases tenfold, berries - four and five times. In addition, the fruits themselves are larger and tastier.
Each pest has its own parasites and predators that destroy it. For example, in cabbage, from five to fifty parasites and predators have been identified, which destroy up to 86% of the cabbage moth, 90% of the cabbage whiteworm and up to 26% of the cabbage scoop. The activity of local entomophages increases if nectar-bearing plants are sown.
Earthworms penetrate deep into the parent rock up to 8.5 m, moles - 5.3, ants - 3.2, spiders and beetles - up to 1.6 m. These inhabitants of the earth take an active part in soil formation. They dig dwellings in the soil, enrich its upper layers with their waste, mix organic residues with mineral particles of the soil and, dying, increase the humus content in the soil.
Culture Compatible cultures Best predecessors
Potatoes, celery, lettuce, dill, cucumbers, onions, beans, tomatoes.
Early potatoes, legumes, onions, cucumbers, zucchini, cereals, radishes, carrots.
Beans, corn, cabbage, horseradish, eggplants, onions, beets.
Radishes, cereals, greens and legumes, cabbage, cucumbers.
Cabbage, beets, strawberries, tomatoes, lettuce, potatoes.
Cabbage, tomatoes, zucchini, squash, cucumbers, cereals, carrots, radishes.
Leeks, sage, lettuce, tomatoes, peas, beans.
Cereals, early potatoes, cucumbers, greens and legumes.
It is impossible to imagine our table without vegetables and potatoes. They are the most important component of the diet of both the academician and the carpenter. Vegetables - a pantry of carbohydrates, protein, organic acids, vitamins, mineral salts, enzymes, and other essential nutrients. Vitamins that are either almost absent or are present in small doses in other products are of particular value. Do not rely solely on grocery stores and markets, start your own vegetable garden. Especially if you want to have fresh vegetables straight from the garden.The secrets of growing vegetables are not that difficult. Diligence, perseverance, curiosity, ingenuity will help you overcome all difficulties and become a real vegetable grower.
So, advice from specialists and experienced gardeners.
To extend the season for the consumption of fresh vegetables, early, medium and late varieties are planted. The earliest harvests in the open field can be obtained from the cultivation of perennial crops (sorrel, rhubarb, perennial types of onions), as well as from winter sowing of carrots, beets, parsley, radishes and onions. Early vegetables of annual crops (lettuce, cucumbers, radishes) and onions can be grown in small greenhouses in the garden.
They accelerate the development of shelters made of film or glass without artificial heating in early spring. You can grow radishes under them. They can cover sorrel, rhubarb, onions, winter crops of beets and carrots.
Vegetable plants according to biological, botanical and economic characteristics, they are classified into homogeneous groups.
Cabbage plants. There are several varieties of cabbage: white cabbage, cauliflower, red cabbage, Savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and leafy cabbage. Almost all types of cabbage are biennial plants. Only in the second year, the planted stalks with apical buds give seeds. Plants of this group are cold-resistant, require increased moisture supply, although they do not tolerate excessive moisture (especially long-term), they are demanding on soil fertility. Cauliflower, Chinese cabbage and broccoli under certain conditions form seeds in the first year of life and are annual.
Mid-ripening cabbage varieties are suitable for pickling, late varieties for pickling and long-term storage. Red cabbage is unsuitable for cooking, it is used fresh for salads. Cauliflower is good for boiling, roasting, and canning.
Roots. This group includes: carrots, parsnips, parsley, celery (umbelliferae family) beetroot (from the haze family) radish, turnips, turnips, rutabagas, radishes (cruciferous family) chicory (from the aster family). All root crops form seeds in the second year of life (when planted with an intact apical bud), with the exception of radishes and summer radishes, which give seeds in the first year. Without exception, all plants of this group are cold-resistant, require high soil fertility, moisture supply (especially in the period after sowing the seeds).
Bulbous plants. In this group, onions, leeks, perennial varieties of onions (multi-tiered shallots, batun onions) coexist. All these plants are cold-resistant. Onions and garlic contain many nutrients and vitamins. Onions are grown by seeds (nigella), sevkom (small bulbs 1.5-2.5 cm, usually obtained from nigella) and a sample (3-4 cm or more).
Fruit vegetables. Cucumbers, zucchini, squash, pumpkin, watermelons, melons (pumpkin family) tomatoes, peppers, eggplants (nightshade family). All these plants are very thermophilic and require highly fertile soils. Almost every year, in our conditions, to obtain these vegetables, it is necessary to use protective agents against frost and low temperatures.
Peas, beans and beans (legume family) are also classified as fruit vegetables. Unlike their neighbors, they can withstand low temperatures. Beans are somewhat more thermophilic than peas and beans.
Green vegetables. These are the familiar salad, dill, parsley, celery, watercress, coriander (do not be confused that we also included some of them in the group of root vegetables - remember the sayings about tops and roots), as well as other cultures that we almost not familiar and not cultivated in the middle lane. All of these crops are cold-resistant annuals, they are mainly sown with seeds.
Perennial vegetables. It is somehow unusual to call sorrel, rhubarb, asparagus, horseradish vegetables - but this is so. All these plants are frost-resistant, in one place they can grow from two to five years. Propagated by seeds and vegetatively.
Potatoes. Among vegetables it takes a special place, it is bred to obtain tubers. Potatoes belong to the nightshade family. Potato bushes are easily damaged by frost. Propagated mainly by tubers, but you can also propagate it by eyes, sprouts, dividing a bush and even seeds (this laborious work does not give the same effect as propagation by tubers).
Part garden plot that you allocate for vegetable crops should not be shaded. If possible, you should choose a free, well-lit area with the most fertile soil (if the soil is not very fertile, you need to patiently start creating it for many years). A common mistake of novice vegetable growers is the desire for a combined arrangement of crops, when vegetables and strawberries are placed among young apple and pear trees. As long as the trees are young, everything seems to be going well: the crowns do not shade the beds too much, there is enough light and food for vegetables. But trees quickly gain strength, grow, and then the intermediate crops fall into the shade, their yield decreases from year to year. Indeed, most vegetable crops and potatoes do not tolerate strong shading and the presence of roots of woody plants in the soil. Therefore, one of the main rules for complex gardening and horticulture - provide a place for each crop and take into account the need to subsequently carry out a competent change (alternation) of vegetables and berries. After all, a certain culture should be returned to its original place not earlier than after three years, and even better - after four or five years. To do this, you need to draw up a clear plan for the placement and rotation of crops.
The timing of the return of crops to their original place is roughly the following: cabbage - 3 - 4 years, carrots - 3, peas - 4 - 5, celery - 3, tomatoes - 3 - 4, cucumbers - 3, lettuce - 1-2, onions - 4 - 5 years.
The yield decreases especially sharply and the quality deteriorates with permanent cultivation of cabbage, beets, peas, tomatoes, cucumbers, and potatoes.
When plants are re-grown on the same soil, a decrease in yield occurs as a result of the release of physiologically active substances into the soil, which subsequently inhibit the same culture.
The most appropriate width of the beds is 1.2 m. Between the beds, paths 0.3 m wide are left. The creation of narrower beds is a waste of the land of the garden plot, wider ones - it makes it difficult to cultivate the soil, care for plants and harvest.