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Organizing the life of bees in the apiary


Tips for Beginner Beekeepers

Having visited any agricultural exhibition, you will be amazed at the abundance of honey and beekeeping products offered by representatives of different regions. Usually these are products of large beekeeping farms from Bashkiria, Altai, Stavropol and other regions. But more and more often, you can see a couple of hives in garden plots. The number of amateur beekeepers is growing. However, one should not think that keeping a bee colony is a simple matter. There are many secrets here. We will talk about some of them today.

Bee venom is serious

If you decide to keep bees in your garden, be sure to remember or ask if you or your loved ones are allergic to a bee sting. You should also ask your neighbors about this. If no one has allergies, you can freely have bees and keep them on your site all summer. But if at least one of the family members is allergic to a bee sting, then think it over carefully before introducing these insect workers. The fact is that if a person does not even come close to the hive, sooner or later he will be bitten by bees. There are many reasons for this:

  • when selecting honey, bees become angrier and can bite everyone around them, not just the beekeeper;
  • if you get into the hive and somehow anger the bees, they can attack strangers;
  • if a person stands in front of the entrance or walks past him, then he will certainly be bitten by a bee or several bees at once.

According to scientists, the effect of bee venom depends on the amount that has entered the human body, and on how the human body tolerates bee stings. If, for example, you are stung by from 100 to 300 bees at the same time, then there is a general poisoning of the body. The symptoms of this poisoning are also felt by people who are allergic to a bee sting. Doctors consider 100 milligrams of bee venom to be a lethal dose. If this translates into bee stings, then you should be bitten by about 500 bees at once. Bites on the lips, tongue and the side of the neck are especially dangerous. With these bee stings, a person can die.

To make the bees bother your neighbors less and bite them less, I recommend making a solid fence with a height of 2.5 to 3 meters between neighboring areas. Then your bees, flying over the fence, will fly over the areas of neighbors and, accordingly, will not bite them.

Selection of hives

When choosing the type of hive, I recommend proceeding from the local climatic and honey-gathering conditions and the location of the hives: will your bees stay in the summer during the main bribe in the country, or will you roam with bees, taking them to places of abundant flowering of herbs, linden and other plants, so that they collect more honey. I have used different types of hives in my practice:

  • single-body for 12 nest frames, frames were Dodan systems;
  • a lounger for 20-22 nest frames of the Dodan system;
  • multi-body hives.

In a single-hull 12-frame hive and in a lounger, the size of the nesting frames is 435 x 300 mm. And in multi-body hives there are no nest frames, in each body the frames are the same size: 435 x 230 mm. Such a hive is convenient for transporting bees, as well as for joining several bee colonies into one colony and for dividing a bee colony into several different colonies. Therefore, if you are going to roam with an apiary, I advise you to pay attention to multihull hives.

One drawback of these hives: bees hibernate worse on their frames and come out weaker in spring than in hives with 435 x 300 mm nest frames. If you have a warm and dry wintering room for bees, where the temperature does not drop below -3oC in winter, then you can opt for multihull hives. But if you will not go out with bees in the summer, I recommend keeping them in bee-beds for 20 nesting frames or in hives for 10-12 nesting frames.

Bee lands

If you are going to keep bees only in the country, then before you start them, I recommend asking if there are enough honey plants within a radius of 2-3 kilometers from your garden plot. If there are no honey plants, or there are very few of them, then your bees will not be able to provide honey not only for you, but also for themselves with food for the coming winter. They simply have nowhere to find and bring nectar for making honey. And if they do not store honey for the winter, they will die of hunger.

If there are enough honey plants in the area, then the bees can be kept in the garden area, without even going to other places in the summer. A strong bee family will always provide itself and you with real honey.

How many hives do you need

Some novice beekeepers start only one hive for a test - one bee colony. I recommend starting several bee colonies at once: at least two. This is for insurance purposes.

It so happens that in one of the bee colonies the queen disappears for some reason. And at the same time, in the hive, and this happens, there is no open brood, because of which the bees will not be able to breed a new queen for themselves. Such a queenless bee colony is doomed to perish. But if you have two or more families, you can rearrange the frame with the open brood from another hive into the hive without a queen, and in this way save the queenless bee colony. On the eggs of the open brood, the bees will lay queen cells and hatch a new queen.

Which bees to choose?

Most novice beekeepers are interested in bees that are peaceful, not very angry, especially if the beekeeper plans to keep an apiary in the country all summer.

Peace-loving bees include: Caucasian and Carpathian bees, and evil honey bees - Bashkir forest and Central Russian. If you want to keep bees all summer only in your summer cottage, then I recommend opting for Caucasian and Carpathian bee breeds. But if in the summer you will take the apiary somewhere to remote places where there are few people, then I recommend using the Central Russian breed of bees. This breed is most adapted to central Russia, where winters are long, and there may be few summer days in summer.

The fact is that in the Caucasian breeds of bees, according to experts, the intestine for keeping feces is designed for a period of only 4 to 5 months, and since in our area the period of cold time can be longer, bees can be in the hive from 6 up to 6.5 months. Carpathian and Caucasian bees cannot withstand such a period of stay in the hive, because of this they often empty their intestines right in their "home", which sometimes leads to the occurrence of various diseases. This is not observed in Central Russian bees, since this breed is designed for a long winter.

I keep Carpathian and Caucasian bees, as my apiary is at the summer cottage all summer. However, because of this, I cannot get young queens early. The reason is that the heat, at which the queens of these breeds fly around, in May and June may not be at all. Bees intensively lay queen cells, queens are hatched, but they cannot fly around - the temperature may not rise to + 25oC for a whole month. After some time, the queen becomes infertile, and the bees replace it with another.

According to experts, if the queen has not mated with the drones for 30-35 days, then she loses the ability to mate, and the bees have to replace her. To do this, they need an open brood. If the beekeeper puts them in the hive a frame with eggs (with open brood) from another hive, then the bees will be able to breed another queen and replace the old one with it. But if a bee colony lives in the wild and does not depend on humans, then such a bee colony dies, since they no longer have eggs to lay new queen cells.

In Central Russian bees, the queen flies around at a lower temperature, so in our region it always flies around. If the Central Russian bees were not evil, then I would have kept them on my site, and I would have collected much more honey.

Beehives-loungers for 22 nest frames of the Dodan system

Swarming bees

Many novice beekeepers believe that you can only put a hive with bees on your garden plot, and it is not necessary to follow and care for the bee family. If you do this, then sooner or later the bees from this hive will begin to swarm, and then they will completely scatter. Swarming is a reproductive instinct in bees. The owner of the apiary feels the harm from swarming, since a bee colony that swarmed at least once this season will bring significantly less honey than a colony that has never swarmed.

Here is an example from my practice: a family that did not swarm gave me about 60 kilograms of honey, and another bee colony that was swarming gave me only one store - about 15 kilograms.

Experienced beekeepers know that if a bee colony is not brought out of its swarm state in time, it can form and release up to a dozen swarms. First, the first swarm, consisting of half of the bees that are in the hive, flies away, then the second swarm, consisting of the half of the bees that remained in the hive after the first swarm. And this will continue until all the bees fly away from the "grief of the beekeeper."

Basically, bees swarm until June 15, but due to some changes in the weather, swarming can sometimes last until June 30. In my practice, there have been cases when a bee colony swarmed even in July. If your task is only to get as many new families as possible, and you are not interested in honey, then you can wait for a swarm, and when it flies out, catch it and put it in a new hive. By the fall, a strong bee colony will grow out of it, which can then be sold or kept to increase the apiary.

Some novice beekeepers who have caught a swarm for the first time tend to plant it in a new hive through its top (roof) by shaking off the bees. This is a gross mistake. With this method of planting a swarm, bees can fly away from the "home" that you have provided them.

So that your swarm does not fly away again, it is necessary to plant it not through the top of the hive, but through the entrance. Each bee must enter the "door" of her new home, then she will be sure that she is in a new home. This procedure can take several hours (the time depends on the size of the swarm), but at the same time you can be sure that the swarm you have planted will not fly away from the housing you provided, but will stay in your apiary. I recommend planting the caught swarm only in an empty hive, having provided him with all the conditions for a normal life in his new "house" in advance:

  • be sure to put in an empty hive, into which you will transplant the swarm, several frames with dry land - in them the bees will add honey, which they took with them on the road;
  • do not forget to put frames with stretched foundation - swarm bees have a lot of building energy, since they produce a lot of wax, they also need to provide a place where they use it;
  • I also recommend putting a honey-beech frame, if you have one.

In no case do not plant immediately, if there is no bribe, a newly caught swarm into someone else's bee colony - the bees of this bee colony can kill the swarm, even if the swarm bees are with honey. If you want to connect a newly caught swarm with another bee family, do not connect it immediately, but after a few days and only through the newspaper.

Once, having caught a swarm, on the same day in the evening I launched it into another bee colony through the entrance. “Once swarm bees with honey, they will not be killed in someone else's family,” I thought. The next day, getting up early, I was saddened to find that the whole swarm that I had launched into someone else's bee colony had been killed. If I connected the swarm not on the same day as I caught it, but a few days later, and connected it through the newspaper, then the bees would connect gradually and, perhaps, the swarm would remain whole.

Only their queen could have suffered, because two queens cannot live in one bee colony. And the bees would have to choose the queens. Since any bee colony lives for the "future generation", it is in its interests to choose the healthiest and most fertile queen. There were cases when a bee colony accepted a swarm and killed its queen, and left the swarm, which came with the swarm, to live in its own family.

I do not advise you to combine a caught swarm with a bee family that is in a swarm state. First, take the bee colony out of the swarm state and only then connect it with the captured swarm through the newspaper. A strong bribe helps to bring the bee colony out of the swarm state. But if there is no strong bribe, and you are not going to create it artificially, cut out from the bee family all the queen cells that the bees laid. If you miss at least one mother plant, then the swarm from this family will definitely fly away.

When a swarm leaves its family, it grafts onto the nearest tree or bush. The height of the graft depends on the age of the uterus: if the uterus is old, the swarm sits low, and if the uterus is young, it can graft on the tallest tree that is in your area or near it. He will sit there for about three hours, until the scout bees sent by the swarm find shelter. But if the swarm leaves its family, and the weather suddenly deteriorates, then the bees do not necessarily return back to their "home", to their hive. In my practice, there were such cases when a swarm lived on a tree in anticipation of good weather for about seven days!

Once, watching the bees, I saw with horror a swarm flying out of the hive. Due to the rainy weather all week, I could not see this bee colony and take measures to prevent the bees from swarming. First, the swarm flew to the top of the pine, but then descended a little and sat on the trunk of the top of the spruce, the height of which was about 9 meters. It was impossible to reach the swarm, since I did not have a ladder of this size. In addition, the branches at the top were thin.

Then, unexpectedly, it began to rain. And instead of flying away in a few hours, the swarm stayed at the tree to spend the night - as if he was giving me a chance to take it off. He hung like that for several days, and I walked around the tree, but I could not help it. When the weather improved, the sun came out, he calmly left my site and flew to an unknown home for me.

Since the swarms sometimes sit high, the beekeeper needs to be able to climb trees. After all, he must not only climb to the swarm, but also, sitting high on a tree, be able to skillfully plant it in the swarm, while transferring bee stings! Therefore, before allowing the swarming of a bee colony and keeping bees, think: can you do such acrobatic "tricks"? Recommend: if you are going to allow swarming, you need to take care that there are no tall trees in and around the site.

But if you don't want to, for your bees to swarm, consider the following:

- while there is no bribe or there is, but very bad, divide the bee colony in half. In the part that was left without a queen, the bees will lay queen cells in order to bring out another queen. In the same half, place the frames with the printed brood from the half with the old queen. Then, when the main bribe begins, unite the two families into one again. In this way, you will avoid swarming of the entire bee colony, and, if you are lucky, will bring out a young queen. You just need to remember that in the half that you left without a queen, the bees will take care of themselves and begin to work fruitfully only when they hatch a young queen, which flies around and starts laying eggs;

- if it is impractical to divide the bee colony, try to load the bees with work. The more work a bee colony has, the less bees "think" about reproduction. It is very good when there is a strong bribe. Then the bee colony will mobilize all its relatives to bring as much nectar as possible for itself and for the “future generation”. The instinct to get as much food as possible is higher than the reproductive instinct of bees. But if the weather deteriorates, and the bees cannot even fly out of the hive, then after a few days they can go into a swarm state.So that the bee colony in bad weather could not even "think" about swarming, some beekeepers at this time begin to give it sugar syrup. Thus, they give the bees work, and the bee colony does not think about swarming.

But bees can swarm not only from a lack of work, but also from a lack of "living conditions": if they are cramped in the hive, some of them will fly away to look for new spacious housing. Sometimes bees swarm when they realize that the queen has nowhere to worm - all frames are filled with honey or bee bread. In these cases, so that the bees do not feel cramped in the hive, I recommend expanding the bee's nest in advance. To do this, you can put additional boxes with dry land and foundation (if the hive is multi-hull) or additional stores (if you keep the bees in a bed).

Freedom to collect honey

True, this can only be done in warm weather. Free space in the hive is also very important for honey collection. It is necessary for bees so that they can make honey from nectar. Therefore, I recommend: if there is a strong bribe and the weather is warm, put one additional building or store with land, where the bees will put the newly brought nectar, which will gradually ripen.

Several years ago, in the fall, when forming a bee's nest for the winter (you can read how to prepare bees for winter in my article in # 8, 2013), I gave the bees sugar syrup so that they could supplement their incomplete frames and seal them. Some families took syrup well, and a few hives took almost nothing. When I examined these hives, I saw that the bees had nowhere to put the syrup, and even more so from it to make honey. There was no free space for this in the hive - free honeycombs! Therefore, if in the summer during honey collection the bee colony will work poorly for you, be sure to see if it has free combs, where the bees can put the newly brought nectar.

Some beekeepers have a deficit of frames during the bribe, because of this, during the bribe, they have to take unsealed honey from the bees and pump out the unsealed honey, and put the frames back in the hive. When selecting honey, I advise you to take only completely printed frames from the hive, in extreme cases, there should be at least two-thirds of the printed frames. Unprintable honey can be taken only if the bribe has not been more than three weeks. If you hurry up and pump out unprintable (unripe) honey, then after that it can sour.

But mature honey can also deteriorate if stored in a damp room, where it can pick up a lot of moisture. Therefore, I recommend storing the pumped honey only in a dry place. Be sure to ensure that no water gets into it.

Good luck in keeping bees and a good bribe for the new season to all novice beekeepers!

Dmitry Mamontov, beekeeper. Photo by the author


From the experience of keeping bees

I have been keeping bees for 15 years, I regularly read magazine "Beekeeping". For some reason, the content of bees in multi-hive hives is very poorly promoted. This requires a scientifically sound approach, not desperate articles by individual enthusiastic beekeepers.

Bees are kept in the USA and Europe in multihull hiveswhile achieving excellent results. Clinging to the old, we hinder the development of beekeeping in our country. Some beekeepers are intimidated by the difficulty of serving families in multihull hives... And in my opinion, they are not. Rearranging the enclosures, as previously thought, is not at all necessary. In the spring, in cool weather, the uterus works in the upper body, and then goes into the lower one. Inspecting the hulls is easy too. During the period of family development, they are not difficult. It is enough to raise one or two frames to understand the state of the family. The removed upper body is lowered onto the roof placed under it and covered with a canvas. A few minutes are required to inspect the lower buildings. This is if necessary. And no one needs to prove that the vertical arrangement of the nest corresponds to the nature of the bee colony. Our task is to make the life of the bee colony easier with a reasonable approach.

Anyone who happens to live in a hot place in a boardwalk understands how hard it is for bees in a single-walled hive in hot weather and in cold spring. The development of families slows down, and stops at high temperatures. In his apiary all 35 hives sheathed with foam sheets. I noticed that families began to develop better. One spring it turned out that the lower case was sheathed with foam, but the upper one was not. The uterus began laying eggs in the lower body. Family development in spring goes much faster. There is no need to use electric heaters. Foam plastic with a thickness of 3 cm in thermal conductivity is approximately equal to a wooden board with a thickness of 15 cm.

Last season I decided to purchase polyurethane foam hives, which are produced in Togliatti. I liked how the manufacturers ship them. Everything is built on complete trust. On a phone call, the hives were dispatched. The package contained the payment documents, according to which the payment was made. Simple and convenient. It is difficult to draw an unambiguous conclusion in one season, but I will indicate something. Prepared the hives as indicated in the instructions. Collected according to the template, painted on the outside and food paint from the inside. I made a fly-through barrage myself, because I did not understand how to use the one supplied with the hive.

First, he transplanted a heavily vomited family with a young uterus. At first glance, the development was going well. But there are some peculiarities. The bees have very weakly polished the shoulders of the frames. There were very few bees on the brood. Although the framework was almost completely occupied by him. And there was a pungent smell of plastic. True, the impression was created that this did not irritate the bees, and the queen laid eggs well. At the end of the season, the family did not receive any marketable products, but she was able to provide herself with honey for the upcoming winter. However, I received up to 50 kg of marketable honey from families in wooden hives and left one frame with frames for wintering.

The second hive, consisting of three buildings, was populated with a swarm weighing about 6 kg. Development went well as in the first hive, but the result was the same.

The third hive was completely disappointing. On May 27, I settled in a good swarm. Development went slowly, the uterus was infertile. She later started laying eggs, but for some reason she disappeared. The family got sick and had to fix it. The result is generally negative for all three families. Whereas in a disgusting season with constant rains and the honey harvest of families in wooden hives, which broke off in mid-July, they gave a good result.

Of the positive properties of polyurethane foam beehives, it should be noted their lightness, very low thermal conductivity of the hulls, ease of inspection. But there are more negative properties. The strength of the housings is insufficient. The self-tapping screws that fix the walls do not hold well. Very poor ventilation. As a result, the bees still somehow take care of the brood, but there is no one to collect honey.

The end of last year was difficult due to weather conditions, it rained constantly. In addition, it was not possible to treat the bees from ticks and nosematosis before wintering. Families were brought into the winter house on December 3. Found 2 hives without bees. There was a lot of honey in both. In one, the upper body is not touched at all.

Throughout the winter, the temperature in the winter house was 2.4 ° С, sometimes it dropped to -2 ° С on frosty days. The winter house did not provide additional heating. He removed the roofs from the hives, put a strip of plastic wrap in the middle and covered it with a clean thin canvas. Removed pillows and roofs. The lower entrances are slightly open.

The wintering went well, only one of the families in a polyurethane hive in four buildings made noise back in December. I decided that she was starving and prepared a full body of frames with honey for her. I removed the upper body with bees from the hive. It turned out to be heavy, so with honey. He took off the third building - full of honey, the second - four or five full frames with honey. And only the bottom one was empty. When and where did they get so much honey?

I put a box with bees on the bottom and a box with honey on top. I removed the rest of the buildings. The family had about 30 kg of honey.

And yet she died of hunger, because the uterus laid eggs all winter.

I left one polyurethane hive outside. The wintering was successful, and in the spring (April 15) I put in the third body, since the lower ones were filled with brood. It is advisable that manufacturers of polyurethane hives give more detailed recommendations on the features of keeping bees. Again you have to learn from your own mistakes. And for those who have been using such hives for several years, it would be nice to share their experience.

But I was especially surprised in the spring by the very condition of the apiary. In past years, despite the increased use of nosemacide, in the spring, many families were vomited. And in this litter was mostly black and stripes. When, as before, it was flat cakes and light yellow. What influenced? At first I decided that it was a very early flyby, since the hives were set up on March 10, and the bees immediately flew around. But it turned out that I did not take into account one important factor. I got a hint from the article by A.I.Kasyanov "Honeycombs - the basis of the nest of a bee colony" (magazine "Beekeeping" No. 4, 2014). This is already the second case when the data of this scientist-beekeeper provide effective assistance in the knowledge of bees. First - articles about thermogenesis.

After analyzing the past season, I found out that bees are incredibly strong swarmed... I had to make a lot of layering and put them a huge amount of foundation, which the bees pulled back, and the new frames got into the winter. The apiary got rid of a huge number of black frames containing a lot of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. I will repeat the words of A.I. Kasyanov: “Timely replacement of old combs with young ones is the basis of strong healthy families».

V. I. Ramazanov
Kaluga region, pos. Ferzikovo
housing estate "Beekeeping" No. 10, 2014


Conditions of carriage

When transporting bee packages, it is better to choose a road with a high-quality surface so as not to shake insects and destroy the honeycomb. In the car, the boxes are arranged in longitudinal rows with sufficient distance between them for good ventilation.

Frames in the box are fixed with special slats (or combs) to prevent vibration. Otherwise, many bees may die. The feeding frames should not be taken too full, as the combs may come off during movement.

If transportation is carried out in a trailer, the package must be at least half hidden in the back.

Families can be transported day and night. If the weather is hot, the car should be parked in the shade during rest. If the road is long, the bees should be allowed to rest for 1 day, so that they collect water and make a cleansing flight.

It is important to take into account that during a long journey a young bee may appear, therefore it must be provided with food (before leaving, stock up on additional honey). You need to water the bee packages at least 1 time in 2 days.

You can check the condition of the bees by listening to the boxes. If the hum is even and calm, then the transportation is going well.

In the practice of beekeepers, two types of bee packages are used:

  • cellular (frame)
  • cellless (frameless).

The cell package is formed from standard Dadan frames in a 3 + 1 ratio. There may be more feed if long haulage is to be expected. The filling of the package in most cases depends on the wishes of the buyer.

A cell-free package is a box whose top, bottom and narrow sides are made of wood. The two wide side walls are mesh. In such a mesh box, a queen bee is placed in a special cage with top dressing (syrup, candy), 1.2 kg of bees, a feeder and a drinking bowl.

Transplanting four frame packages into a hive in the video:


Taking hives out into the street

The removal of hives from Omshanik to the points is carried out on a sunny, windless morning and should be completed by 10 o'clock. If the apiary is large, you can take out some of the buildings the night before. First, troubled families are taken out so that they calm down overnight.

Some beekeepers advise showing everyone in the evening. The next day, the bees, making the first flight, do not get nervous, do not fly far away. However, not all beekeepers have the opportunity to spend two days at the apiary with an overnight stay.

It is necessary to take the hives out of the winter house carefully. Try to avoid hitting the hives, sharp shaking, loud conversations. This makes families anxious and nervous. The holes are closed during carrying.

Having installed the hives, it is necessary to carefully examine the entrances. A large amount of stool indicates a possible illness. Such a hive requires deep revision in the first place.

Before opening the taphole, it is necessary to cleanse the corpses of insects - podmor. By this, the beekeeper pursues two goals: he helps the bees weakened during the winter to clear the exit, and estimates the number of dead insects. If there is not a lot of death, the wintering went well. It is easy to clean the tap holes: a wire bent in the shape of the letter "G" is inserted inside the tap hole and from there the pore is removed into the substituted container. After that, the entrances are left open.


Sugar syrup feeding

At the beginning of March, the beekeeper is obliged to check the condition of the apiary: it should not be in a windy area, and places for hives should be cleared. The beekeeper must also do the following:

  1. Check the condition of the bee colony at the end of wintering.
  2. Make a ventilation system in the hives to eliminate the risk of overheating.
  3. Encourage the bees to fly for the first time by enclosing the hive with wooden frames or glass.
  4. Fill feeders or bags with sugar syrup.

To prepare sugar syrup with a concentration of 60%, you will need:

  • Granulated sugar - 3 kg.
  • Pure water - 2 liters.

To make a liquid sweet dressing, you need to pour the required amount of granulated sugar into a vat of boiling water. You should immediately remove the container from the heat and mix the contents thoroughly. As soon as the solution cools down to 35 degrees, it should be immediately poured into the feeders.

Recommendations for feeding:

  • Only high quality granulated sugar can be used. Sugar of a dark color and smelling of molasses is not suitable for feeding.
  • Burning of the sugar solution must not be allowed, since in the process of caramelization, substances that are harmful to the bee colony are formed.
  • The water should be potable and soft, but in no case snowy or rainwater.
  • Sugar syrup can be, in addition to 60%, also 50 and 66% concentration (in a ratio of parts 1: 1 or 3: 2).

Recipe for 50% Concentration

Syrup in plastic bags

Feeding bees in spring is an important procedure that affects yield, honey quality and the development of individuals. The beekeeper needs to choose the right feeding method and prepare the apiary well for the new season.


Organizing the life of bees in the apiary - garden and vegetable garden

In beekeeping, there are exceptionally great opportunities for quickly replacing one bee breed with another. Since all the offspring of a family come from one uterus, then by replacing it with a new desired breed, it is possible to carry out a change of breeds. During the spring-summer period, all bees are completely replaced by the offspring of a new queen in 35–45 days.

To replace the breed of bees in an apiary, the easiest way is to purchase and plant fertile queens in all families. But you can limit yourself to only two fetal uterus of the desired breed of unrelated origin. In this case, in the first year, the queens are removed from one of the obtained queens of the new breed and planted in all apiary families. They mate with local drones and give first generation crossbreed families. However, in families with new queens, after a change of all bees, drones are obtained the same as queens, that is, purebred (drones are hatched from unfertilized eggs). Therefore, next year all families will have drones of the breed we need.

In the second or third year, the queens of the second (unrelated) breed are hatched, and they will already mate with the drones of the new breed. After such a double shift, the families will have the desired purebred uterus.The method of double changing queens to replace local bees of a zoned breed can be used if the apiary is sufficiently isolated from others where local bees are located, in order to avoid the possibility of mating of queens with drones of neighboring apiaries.

Therefore, it is necessary either to transport the bees to some place where there will be no other apiaries at a distance of 5-6 km, or to organize the replacement of queens at once at all nearby apiaries. If nucleuses are used for mating queens, then they are transferred to an isolated place, where 10-15 purebred families with drones are delivered.

The double queen change can be used to replace low-productivity bees with other bees of the same breed, but improved by selection selection in advanced apiaries. To do this, in the first year, the queens (layering, family) are taken from the apiary of the advanced farm and her daughters are used to obtain layering and replace old queens. In the second third year, a fetal uterus is acquired in another advanced farm, and the queens in the apiary are replaced with its offspring for the second time. To reduce the possibility of mating of queens with random drones, at least 15 families should be selected for their hatching and two drone combs should be placed in their nests.

In beekeeping, there are exceptionally great opportunities for quickly replacing one bee breed with another. Since all the offspring of a family come from one uterus, then by replacing it with a new desired breed, it is possible to carry out a change of breeds. During the spring-summer period, all bees are completely replaced by the offspring of a new queen in 35–45 days.

To replace the breed of bees in an apiary, the easiest way is to purchase and plant fertile queens in all families. But you can limit yourself to only two fetal uterus of the desired breed of unrelated origin. In this case, in the first year, the queens are removed from one of the obtained queens of the new breed and planted in all apiary families. They mate with local drones and give birth to hybrid families of the first generation. However, in families with new queens, after a change of all bees, drones are obtained the same as queens, that is, purebred (drones are hatched from unfertilized eggs). Therefore, next year all families will have drones of the breed we need.

In the second or third year, the queens of the second (unrelated) breed are hatched, and they will already mate with the drones of the new breed. After such a double shift, the families will have the desired purebred uterus. The method of two-fold change of queens to replace local bees of a zoned breed can be used if the apiary is sufficiently isolated from others where local bees are located, in order to avoid the possibility of mating of queens with drones of neighboring apiaries.

Therefore, it is necessary either to transport the bees to some place where there will be no other apiaries at a distance of 5-6 km, or to organize the replacement of queens at once at all nearby apiaries. If nucleuses are used for mating queens, then they are transferred to an isolated place, where 10-15 purebred families with drones are delivered.

The double queen change can be used to replace low-productivity bees with other bees of the same breed, but improved by selection selection in advanced apiaries. To do this, in the first year, the queens (layering, family) are taken from the apiary of the advanced farm and her daughters are used to obtain layering and replace old queens. In the second third year, a fetal uterus is acquired in another advanced farm and its offspring are replaced for the second time with queens in the apiary. To reduce the possibility of mating of queens with random drones, at least 15 families should be selected for their hatching and two drone combs should be placed in their nests.


Warming and ventilation of hives during the wintering of bees in the wild

The well-known components of a successful wintering - a sufficient and correctly located supply of food, young, not older than two years old queens and healthy bees - are indispensable, as when placing hives in the wild, and in the wintering house. Therefore, without dwelling on them, we will consider the conditions to which special attention should be paid during wintering in the wild - this is the volume of the nest, insulation and ventilation of the hives. My apiary is located in the Ulyanovsk region.

Nest. When wintering in the wild there is a higher feed consumption compared to wintering indoors, which makes it necessary to maintain optimal temperature and humidity in the hive. Consuming food, bees generate heat, and the larger the heated room (volume), the more heat is required to heat it. To have the volume of the nest of the optimal size, I proceed as follows. In the second half of September, I finally collect the nests, removing frames from the hives that are not completely hatched by the bees. At this time, all streets, including the extreme ones, should be densely filled with them. The nest should be tight. Experience shows that for strong families of the Carpathian breed, ten frames measuring 435 x 300 mm are quite enough. In this case, when the bees gather in the club, only the extreme frames will remain free. If you leave a larger number of combs, the family will not be able to heat the nest, and moisture will concentrate on the cold frames, honey and bee bread will sour in them, and in the spring they will have to be discarded.

Warming. In my practice for warming hives before wintering, I do the following. I have ten-frame hives on a 435 × 300 mm frame with detachable bottoms. The thickness of the walls of the cases is 35 and 24 mm, the bottoms are 24 mm. The height of the subframe space is 53 mm. Bees winter in housings, six to eight hives in one. I usually do this assembly in the second half of November, with the onset of stable cold weather.

If there are less than ten frames in the nest, then I separate the empty space with a plug-in board and fill it with insulating material - cotton pillows, corrugated cardboard or crumpled newsprint. I also additionally insulate the top of the hive after the bees have gathered in the club. To do this, I put 20-30 layers of newsprint, cardboard on a canvas, and put a cotton pillow on top.

I never change canvases in the fall. They must be carefully polished. If necessary, I replace them in the first half of the season, so that by autumn the bees will cover them well with propolis. A clear evidence of the reliability of such insulation: during the exhibition of bees, the inner side of the hive covers is completely dry.

I install the hives on supports 12-15 cm high in two rows with entrances in opposite directions so that there is a free space of 15-20 cm between them and the walls of the casing.

In front of the entrance, I place the arrival boards, which correspond in width to the width of the hive. I fill all the free space between the hives and hive stands with insulating material - dry oak leaves, straw, pieces of foam. I slightly tamp the insulation, leave it loose in front of the entrances. I also put insulation on the roofs with a layer of 10-20 cm. On top of the covers I cover with sheets of corrugated slate. Under such conditions, the heat radiated by the families hardly comes out: the consumption of fodder is sharply reduced.

Ventilation. Over the millions of years of existence, bees have developed a certain character of behavior and certain requirements for the conditions under which they can live. Observant beekeepers have noticed, and the experiments of scientists have confirmed that bees winter better with poor ventilation of the nest. Therefore, they cover the inner surface of their dwelling with propolis, close up all the cracks, and especially carefully coat the upper part of it. The tap holes are also reduced to the optimal sizes known to them. So, bees in cores, hibernating in pairs in a twelve-frame hive, shorten round entrances from 25 mm to 8-10 mm. In conditions of poor ventilation inside the bee club, the concentration of carbon dioxide increases, this leads to a slowdown in metabolic processes in the body of bees and, as a result, to the preservation of their viability and a decrease in feed consumption. Under natural conditions, the upper part of the bee's nest, where the food supplies are located, is not ventilated. This is the so-called warm zone, warmed by the heat rising up from the bee club. All these features should be taken into account when organizing wintering.

Ventilation of the nest in my hives occurs through two entrances located one above the other in the lower half of the front of the hive. The bottom, slotted, has a height of 7 mm and a width of 35-50 mm (based on 5 mm per frame of bees), located in the insert of the detachable bottom. The upper one is round, 25 mm wide, located 100 mm higher than the lower one. The main entrance is round, it is constantly open. I open the slotted entrance when the bees are wintering and close it immediately after the spring flight. I open it again after the second buildings were installed in the first half of May, adjusting the dimensions with the tap-hole insert. Thus, during the wintering period, the ventilation of the nest is effective and at the same time gentle: cold and dry air enters the hive through the lower entrance, and the warmer and more humid air comes out through the upper one, without cooling the upper part of the nest.

Wintering of bees in the wild with this technology, it is successful. Consumption of feed has significantly decreased. A family occupying ten frames by the time of the exhibition (on average March 15) eats 10-12 kg of it. The bees are vigorous, without traces of diarrhea, dry frames, the minimum amount of death (no more than a glass). Only the corners of the rear of the bottom are wet. Until the beginning of May, bee colonies practically do not require intervention in their lives.

In conclusion, I would like to note that any technological methods proposed and used in beekeeping can be successful only if they take into account the laws of life and development of the bee colony and local conditions.

M. I. BUZOVEROV
Ulyanovsk,
housing estate "Beekeeping" No. 4, 2008


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