Garden thuja is quite widespread in culture, and it is especially popular in landscape design. She is decorated with both squares and parks, and her own garden plots. Thuja is a very effective and compact plant that can purify the air. However, few people know that this culture can be grown at home. In order for the thuja to grow well and not die in unfamiliar conditions for it, it is necessary not only to learn how to properly care for it, but also to choose a suitable species for this.
The coniferous evergreen thuja tree is part of the Cypress family. It has a specific aroma. Cones on this gymnosperm monoecious plant grow both female and male. Pollination is observed in April – May, after which seeds begin to ripen on the plant, which are in egg-shaped cones. When the boxes are ripe in autumn, the seeds are shot out of them. Thuja is found naturally in Northeast and North America (USA and Canada). The height of this slow-growing plant can vary from 5 to 10 m, it belongs to long-lived plants.
Thuja has very durable wood, which is resistant to decay, which is why the Indians also call it "iron wood". Western is called the one that was brought from America. The pyramidal shape of the western thuja was brought to European territory in the 16th century. In the southern part of Russia, this tree began to be cultivated in the last years of the 18th century. In the Caucasus and Crimea, thuja has become a popular decoration for parks. The eastern Tuyu is widely cultivated in the East as a medicinal and ornamental plant. In the wild, it grows on the slopes of the mountains of Japan, China and Korea. This plant is also popularly called the “tree of life”. Some experts believe that this is called so thanks to the King of France, while others are sure that this tree is simply a cult tree in the East. For example, thuja in Central Asia was planted in holy places, not far from mosques. In oriental folk medicine, thuja is very widely used as a medicinal plant.
In order for thuja to grow normally at home and develop correctly, special growing conditions are required for it.
Since in nature such a tree grows in North America, preferring cool places, then in indoor conditions it should be protected from scorching direct sunlight. Because of them, burns appear on the foliage, and the needles turn yellow. This tree belongs to shade-tolerant plants. However, if the lighting is too poor, then its branches will begin to stretch.
In the thuja room, it is better to choose a place that is not too far from the window, especially if it is south. You can put a bush on the windowsill only if it is oriented to the north.
Pay particular attention to the temperature in the room, it should change depending on the season and be as suitable as possible for the plant in question. In summer, the indoor temperature can vary from 20 to 30 degrees. In the warm season, the bush can be kept in the room or transferred to fresh air (garden plot or balcony). On the street for the tree, you need to choose a place located in a little shade.
In winter, you should pay special attention to the choice of a place suitable for the thuja. Remember that she reacts extremely negatively to hot and dry air in the room. The plant feels best in the cold season at a temperature of no more than 15 degrees. A glazed balcony is perfect for wintering a tree. He is not afraid of a slight frost, but in severe frosts, make sure that the root system of the tree is not overcooled. In this case, the container is wrapped and placed on a substrate made of cardboard or wood. Also, this plant must be protected from drafts.
Thuja is a drought-resistant plant, and it is also not afraid of excessively low air humidity. It is not necessary to water the bush too often and abundantly, but make sure that the earthen lump in the pot does not dry out completely. Overdrying of the substrate is especially dangerous during the active growth of the bush and after transplantation. On hot days, watering is carried out 1-2 times in 7 days (the warmer it is in the room, the more often the bush is watered).
With the onset of the cold season, the abundance and the number of waterings are reduced. If in the room where the tree is at this time, the temperature is above zero, then poor watering is arranged 1 time in 2-4 weeks. If the air temperature is close to zero, then the thuja is not watered at all until it gets warmer. Water the plant with well-settled water, the temperature of which is close to room temperature. Make sure that no liquid stagnates in the substrate, as this can harm the tree.
Thuja grows normally at any humidity of the air, and it is not necessary to humidify it from a spray bottle. However, on very hot days, it is still recommended to systematically moisturize the crown of the plant, which will help remove dust from it.
To grow such a tree at home, choose a loose soil mixture that allows moisture and air to pass through well. Its composition depends on the age of the tree. While the bush is young, it is grown in a soil mixture, which consists of coarse river sand, as well as leaf and coniferous soil (1: 4: 2). A grown tree, which does not require frequent transplants, is planted in a substrate consisting of turf soil, peat and river sand (2: 2: 1). When the tree is already quite mature, it can be planted in ready-made soil mixture for conifers, which is sold in a specialized store.
The choice of the size of the container for the room thuja directly depends on the size of the root system. You also need to take into account that the roots of the plant are long, so the capacity should be quite high. If the tree is large, then a stable container should be purchased for it. During transplanting, the new pot should be 20 mm larger than the old one. And when choosing the height of the pot, keep in mind that at its bottom it is necessary to make a drainage layer, the thickness of which is equal to several centimeters. Also, pay attention to the bottom of the container, since there must be drainage holes on it.
If for the winter you rearrange the thuja in a place where there may be slight frosts, then pay attention to what material the container is made of. Choose a non-porous material that does not absorb liquid. The container must be frost-resistant, and also protect the root system from hypothermia. In the event that the thuja hibernates in a relatively warm room (not lower than 10 degrees), then you can not choose a pot so carefully.
The tree is transplanted in the spring. As long as the bush is young, it is transplanted systematically once a year, and the diameter of the old pot should be 20 mm less than the new one. An adult tree is subjected to this procedure only if necessary, once every few years.
When transplanting thuja, you must adhere to the following rules:
Thuja is pruned in the spring. Moreover, at this time, both formative and sanitary pruning is carried out. In order to prevent, cut off all dried branches. In order to give the crown the shape of a ball or a pyramid, it can not only be cut, but also pinched off the shoots.
Home-grown thuja does not need to be fed too often. One feeding in 4 weeks is enough. When choosing a fertilizer, you need to take into account that in the spring time the tree needs a large amount of nitrogen, but in the summer months it is fed alternately with phosphorus and potash fertilizers. There is no need to feed the plant in the autumn-winter period.
Thuja, like most houseplants, can be propagated by cuttings and seeds.
It takes a lot of time, patience, and some knowledge to grow thuja from seeds. You also need to remember that plants grown from seeds do not always retain varietal characteristics. To collect seeds, cones from an adult tree are used. When the buds are fully ripe, they are pruned and stored in a dark and warm place. After cracks appear on them, you can remove the seeds. Before sowing in the substrate, the seed is placed in a moistened cloth for 24 hours. Make sure that the napkin does not dry out throughout the day.
Fill a small container with soil mixture intended for growing young thuja (see above). After the seeds are evenly distributed over the surface of the soil mixture, they are covered with a layer of sand or sawdust on top. Harvest the crops in a place where the air temperature is kept within 20-23 degrees, and the light should be diffused. The first seedlings should appear after 4-6 weeks. The seedling will become a fully formed spectacular tree only after 3-5 years. In this regard, thuja is rarely grown from seeds.
To harvest the cuttings, the side branches are cut. Moreover, you need to cut the cuttings with "heels" (part of the lignified stem), and the length of the cut should be approximately 10 cm. The cut site is treated with Kornevin's solution, after which the cuttings are planted in the substrate for rooting. It is not necessary to water these cuttings. Then they are removed in warmth and do not forget to systematically moisten the soil mixture from a spray bottle. When young leaf plates appear on the segment, this will be a signal that rooting has been successful. Next, the cuttings are transferred to a well-ventilated place. After a short time, the rooted segments are planted in permanent containers.
Thuja Reproduction by Cuttings.
With room thuja, problems may arise due to pests, fungal diseases, as well as non-compliance with the rules of care. Most often, flower growers are faced with the fact that the leaf plates on the tree turn yellow. This is most often due to the fact that the bush was exposed to scorching sunlight for a long time and burns appeared on its foliage. And it can also happen due to the fact that the root collar of the bush is deeply buried or rises above the surface of the substrate. However, yellowing of foliage in winter is considered a completely natural process, and you should not worry about this.
Most often, such a tree is affected by the following fungal diseases: fusarium and cytosporosis. Due to cytosporosis, the thuja bark suffers, black areas appear on its surface. Over time, the disease spreads to the inner layers of the wood, because of which the plant can die without proper treatment.
Because of Fusarium, the needles are painted in a reddish-red hue, and then begin to wither. The root system of the bush also suffers from this disease, because of which it may die. A sick tree is sprayed with a solution of Kartozid or Bordeaux mixture. Thuja is sprayed regularly 1 time in half a month until she fully recovers.
This tree can accommodate scale insects, aphids and bark beetles. Aphids that have settled on needles feed on plant sap, which causes the branches to turn yellow. The scale insect loves to settle on seeds and bark. If, when examining the bark, holes are found on it, this means that the tree has been chosen by bark beetles, which harm it from the inside. To get rid of pests, the bush is sprayed with an insecticidal solution.
Thuja can decorate any room, while purifying the air in it. The smell of pine needles helps to normalize sleep and calm down. Also, decoctions are prepared from the foliage, which help with some diseases. And in winter, you can use the thuja instead of a Christmas tree and decorate it for the New Year.
How to keep conifers indoors.
IN summer time thuja it is necessary to ensure the temperature in the region of + 20 ° + 30 ° C. You can take it out into fresh air, but it is recommended to put it only in a shaded place. In winter, such a high temperature is not at all suitable for thuja.
IN cold time year, the room where it is located should not be heated above + 15 ° С. But she easily tolerates even severe frosts.
Air humidity for thuja is not of great importance. But if the temperature is too high, or it stands on the balcony in the heat, it is recommended to occasionally spray it from a spray bottle.
Cutting propagation is the most convenient, effective way. A big plus of this method is the preservation of the varietal qualities of the tree, as well as the ability to get full-fledged small trees in two or three years. Of the minuses, it is worth noting a reduced endurance and a small percentage of bushes survival. For this situation, this is normal, if you do everything according to the rules, then a positive result will not be long in coming.
Consider the reproduction of thuja at home by cuttings. Which season should you choose for this - spring or autumn?
Most often, novice gardeners are worried about the question of reproduction of thuja in the spring, how best to do it. With spring rooting, all processes are faster, as the movement of juices in the shoots is activated. The procurement of planting material is practically no different from the above method. For the selection of cuttings, healthy branches from the top of the thuja, which are no more than 3 years old, are also used.
Reproduction of thuja in the spring is best done in April, with manual separation of the branch, the "heel" should be preserved. If for some reason you missed April, then you can have time to "catch" the repeated period of shoot growth - this is June. It should be borne in mind that June cuttings "sleep through" summer, autumn, winter, and take root only by spring.
The best way for spring propagation is the substrate method and active hydration. Water or the diaper method will not work here due to insufficient moisture during the activation of the root system. The process itself is very similar to autumn cuttings, but sometimes the soil mixture is replaced with clean sand.
Thuja - propagation by cuttings in spring, stages:
This place should be shaded, the seedlings should be irrigated daily from a spray bottle. If the spring is hot, then spraying should be done twice a day.At the same time, make sure that moisture does not get on the green leaf plates - the process of decay may begin. After two months, it will become clear which cuttings have taken root, by this time the risk of drying out the planting material is significantly reduced.
But there is also an opinion that it is the autumn harvesting of branches for planting that is more expedient, since in the fall the sap flow slows down, respectively, the number of seedlings dying from a lack of moisture decreases. It should be borne in mind that the rooting process will take longer. Let's look at the reproduction of thuja in the spring
To collect twigs, it is better to choose a not sunny day in October, when the foliage has already fallen from the trees (in the Kuban it may be the beginning of November). It is best to pinch off the shoots from the top, it is best to choose those branches that are already 3 or 4 years old.
Select only lignified branches that do not exceed 50 cm in length. At the end of the "correct" shoot, a tree "heel" should be preserved at the end - a part of the bark, thanks to which new roots will develop. The longer this "heel" is, the better the rooting process will be. Remove about 3-4 cm of leaf plates from the end of the shoot and proceed to the next step.
Water is the easiest, most affordable way to revitalize thuja roots. To do this, take a small container, fill it with water, set the branches so that the water covers the ends by about 2 cm. Do not place more than 3 or 5 cuttings. Make sure that the green parts of the shoots do not come into contact with water - this contributes to further decay of the planting material. After that, choose a bright, slightly cool place for the container.
Seedling care is a timely replacement of water (when it becomes cloudy). At this time, the cuttings are removed from the jar, the roots are wrapped in a clean, damp cloth. New water should be disinfected with a pair of potassium permanganate crystals.
Thuja propagation by cuttings in autumn is possible in different ways, for example, using a substrate. This method is more advantageous than the option with water, which does not contain any nutrients, but with the substrate, the rooting process will be much more productive.
To make the seedlings healthier, more hardy, prepare:
When rooting on a substrate, it is important not to overdo it with watering and to prevent the soil from drying out. Moistening is best done by irrigation with a spray gun, since the weight of the water can crush the soil, expose the "heel".
There is another interesting way in which the autumn reproduction of thuja is carried out using sphagnum (peat moss). This method implies, as it were, swaddling the shoots with a kind of cocoon, this method is called so - rooting thuja cuttings in swaddling clothes.
In addition to sphagnum, you will need plastic wrap, a clean cloth, and Kornevin.
Such reproduction of thuja by cuttings is considered the easiest, thanks to the moss, the required moisture level is maintained for a long time. Lack of moisture can be determined by the absence of condensation on the inner walls of the bag - if it is dry, then moisten the diaper with a spray bottle.
Thuja does not require professional care. It is important to pay increased attention to the growing species so that they can grow and not lose their decorative visual characteristics:
Thuja folded Kankan (Thuja folded Kan-kan) is one of the most common cypress trees in the Russian Federation. This is due to their unpretentiousness, simple content. To carry out reproduction correctly, it is enough to follow simple instructions.
I have a large garden and vegetable garden, several greenhouses. I love modern methods of plant cultivation and soil mulching, I share my experience.
In springtime, the Thu Folded Cancan should be watered with lukewarm water and protected from direct sunlight. Otherwise, burns may appear on the crown. The fact is that while the ground in the lower layers is frozen, the roots cannot fully absorb moisture, and the intense spring sun provokes dehydration of the shoots, which is why they turn yellow and dry out.
In early spring and in preparation for winter, we recommend pruning sanitizing. The process removes dry, weak and damaged shoots. Coniferous plants are often affected by fungal infections. In addition to the timely removal of infected areas, we recommend that you spray the plant at least twice a season for preventive purposes.
In this video you will learn about thuja Folded Cancan:
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