The herbaceous perennial plant, peppermint (Mentha piperita), or English mint, or chill, or cold mint, or peppermint, is a species of the genus Mint, belonging to the Lamb family. This species was obtained in the process of hybridization of water mint and spearmint (garden). Such a plant was considered very valuable even in the days of Ancient Rome, furniture was rubbed with its foliage, and an infusion of mint was used for spraying premises. In ancient Egypt, mint was placed in the tomb of the pharaohs. Such a culture was named after the nymph Menta turned into a bush with a pleasant, delicate, but very cold aroma. Mint is very popular in English cuisine, where it is used as a spice for lamb sauce. In America, such a plant is used as an ingredient in vegetable or fruit salads, and also as an additive to mixed drinks and tomato juice. Medicines of various effects are also made from peppermint.
Mint has a horizontal branched rhizome with thin fibrous roots. Hollow straight erect tetrahedral stem has a height of 0.3 to 1 m, it is covered with short hairs. Criss-cross opposite short-petiolate leaf plates have an oblong ovoid shape, heart-shaped at the base and pointed towards the apex, with a sharp-serrated edge. The front surface of the leaves is dark green, and the back has a paler color. The length of the plates is 30–50 mm, and their width is 15–20 mm. Spike-shaped inflorescences consist of small lilac flowers. Flowering lasts from the last days of June to September. The fruit contains 4 coenobium nuts. But the formation of such fruits is extremely rare. This plant is the most valuable melliferous plant, and the honey obtained from it has an amber color and a pronounced smell of mint.
Growing mint from seeds on your windowsill is relatively easy. The container with seedlings can be placed on the windowsill, and it can also be placed on the veranda or on the insulated loggia. The first step is to start preparing the soil mixture. To do this, you need to combine peat, garden soil, humus or sand, taken in equal shares. The prepared substrate must be calcined in the oven. Seeds can be bought at a special store or collected with your own hands. They are sown in a moistened soil mixture, while grooves with a depth of about 50 mm must be made in it. After the seeds are evenly distributed in them, the grooves must be carefully repaired. The container is covered with a film on top, after which it is removed to a well-lit and warm place.
Sowing mint and looking after seedlings should be the same as for any other crops. The first shoots should appear after 15–20 days, after which the container with them must be rearranged in a well-lit place, this will help prevent the stretching of the plants. If the seedlings lack light, then they will need artificial lighting. Plants grow and develop best at temperatures ranging from 20 to 25 degrees. However, if this culture is grown in a lack of light, then the seedlings should be kept cool (from 15 to 17 degrees). The grown plants, if desired, can be planted in the garden, and they can also be further grown indoors.
Mint growing in your home needs adjusting care at different stages of the growing season. For example, in the summer, during the most intensive growth, the substrate should not be overdried, since this may cause the plant to die. Also, if mint does not have enough water, then the risk of pests settling on it increases. In winter, it is necessary to water the bushes very carefully, since in the cold season it is dangerous to allow the substrate to become overmoistened. Since heating devices work in the room in winter, the air humidity during this period is very low, in this regard, the bushes should not be forgotten to systematically moisten the bushes from the sprayer with water at room temperature. Mint should be protected from drafts and should be protected from diseases and pests. In general, growing mint indoors is quite simple.
How to sow mint at home? Growing mint from seeds on a windowsill.
Sowing of mint is carried out in the springtime in April, and this procedure can also be carried out in the summer, or rather, in the first days of August. Planting seedlings grown from seeds, as well as cuttings, must be done from mid to late May.
A site for planting mint should be chosen sunny or in partial shade. Experienced gardeners recommend that there are no various berry, flower and vegetable crops within a radius of 0.6-0.8 m from the bush, otherwise you will grow a bush of low quality. This crop should be grown as far away from cabbage, cucumbers and beets as possible, as this unwanted neighborhood can cause dark spots on its foliage.
This crop is recommended to be grown in soil, into which manure was previously applied for the previous plants. The soil should be moist, loose and rich in nutrients, for example, black soil is ideal for this purpose. Bushes grown in calcareous soil have a faint odor. Sour and swampy soil is also not suitable for mint, because the bushes grow very weak on it.
After a suitable site for such a plant is found, it should be carefully prepared. To do this, it is necessary to remove all weeds from the site, then it should be dug to a depth of about 20 centimeters, while adding 3 kilograms of humus, 2 large tablespoons of wood ash to the soil, as well as 15 grams of ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride per 1 square meter. In an area with a high groundwater table for a given crop, higher beds should be made.
When growing mint, it should be borne in mind that this plant is capable of capturing territories not intended for it, displacing other crops. In this regard, when planting mint around the perimeter of the site, it is necessary to dig in the limiters, for this it is recommended to use plastic or pieces of slate.
Planting plants in open soil should be done in prepared grooves, the depth of which should be about 50 mm, the row spacing should be about 0.4 meters, while the distance between the bushes should be 0.3–0.5 meters. The grooves must be filled with soil, compacted a little, and then watered well.
Planting a mint bush | HOW TO GROW?
Growing mint on your site is easy enough. It is very simple to care for this plant, for this it should be watered, fed, weeded, loosened in a timely manner, and the mint must be protected from diseases and harmful insects.
Watering is carried out in the evening, while until the planted plants take root, they should be watered often enough. The easiest way is to loosen the soil on the site and weed after the bushes have been watered.
Top dressing of this plant is carried out only 1 time per season in the spring. To do this, the site should be covered with a layer of mulch (compost or peat, which is combined with wood ash).
Mint is harvested during mass flowering. The fact is that the bushes during this period contain the largest amount of essential oil. After the raw materials are harvested, the bushes grow back and the plant re-harvests.
How to keep the MINT for the winter? The best ways!
This leafy crop is a good precursor for root crops such as turnips, carrots, turnips and beets. You can also cultivate potatoes in this area.
The greatest danger to mint is a disease such as rust. This fungal disease develops in conditions of low temperature with high air humidity, as well as due to the large amount of nitrogen in the soil and non-observance of the rules of crop rotation. In the affected bushes, on the seamy surface of the leaf plates, pads of a dark red color are formed.
Powdery mildew can also harm such a plant. In the second half of the summer period, the affected specimen is covered with a cobweb bloom of a whitish color, which appears on leaf plates and shoots. For prevention purposes, in the fall, the site is dug to a depth of 0.2 meters, and then the bush is sprayed with a solution of colloidal sulfur (1%).
Mint is also sometimes affected by verticillary wilting, which is also a fungal disease. In a diseased plant, several upper pairs of leaf plates turn black. As the disease progresses, the plant dies. In order to prevent such a disease, experts advise strictly adhering to the rules of crop rotation, in the autumn to clear the site of plant residues that need to be burned, and experienced gardeners recommend growing those varieties of mint that are resistant to wilting, for example, Prilukskaya 6.
Anthracnose can also infect this crop. In a sick bush, specks of brown color are formed on the leaf plates. In order to get rid of the disease, the bush must be sprayed 3 or 4 times with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%). For the purpose of prevention in the fall, it is imperative to dig up the site.
If mint is sick with septoria (spotting), then black dots and brown specks of an angular shape about 0.8 centimeters in size are formed on its leaf plates, which border black rims. You can get rid of such a disease in the same way as from anthracnose, namely, the plant should be sprayed several times with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%).
The greatest danger to such a culture is a disease called overgrowth, which is caused by mycoplasmas. In the affected bush, its development is stopped, the foliage is painted in a color unusual for mint, and the growth of the root system also stops. Today this disease is considered incurable. As soon as a bush affected by an overgrowth is noticed on the site, it must be dug up and burned as soon as possible, while the remaining plants should be transplanted to another site. For the purpose of prevention, you need to try to prevent pests from settling on the mint, since they are the main carriers of this dangerous disease.
As a rule, a very large number of pests settle on mint.
So, a mint flea may appear on the bush, which is a small yellow beetle, reaching only 0.15 centimeters in length, it gnaws round holes in the leaf plates. Most often, this flea appears on mint in the spring, if the weather is warm and dry.
A green shield beetle can also settle on the bushes, it gnaws at the leaf plates at the edges, and also makes holes in them. And holes in the foliage of such a plant can also appear due to the leaf beetle.
Aphids are very dangerous not only for mint, but for all plants. This very small insect can wreak havoc on almost any crop. Such a pest settles on a bush in large colonies, while they prefer to be located on the seamy surface of the leaf plates. Aphids pierce the surface of the leaves and suck the juice out of them. In such bushes, a slowdown in development and growth is observed, and the formation of full-fledged leaf plates stops. You also need to remember that such a pest is the most important carrier of dangerous viral diseases that cannot be cured.
The leafhoppers are also sucking pests, as a rule, they settle on young bushes.
Weevils are also quite dangerous for this culture. The larvae of such a pest eat the roots of the bush, and the adult beetles gnaw the edges of the leaf plates.
The meadow moth is capable of single-handedly destroying the entire plant.
In the southern regions, a meadow mite often settles on mint, wintering in the soil at a depth of about 10 centimeters. And from the beginning of May until the end of the summer period, the tick sucks out the juice, settling on the tops of the stems.
Larvae and adults of the slobbering penny can also attack the bush. On the bush where they settled, there is a deformation of the stems, while foamy lumps form in the leaf sinuses and on the shoots.
If there are dense thickets of wheatgrass not far from the mint, or it is grown on the site where potatoes grew that year, then there is a high probability that the bushes will be annoyed by the wireworm, which is the larvae of the click beetle. This pest gnaws at the roots of the plant.
Such a culture can also annoy the bear, the caterpillar of the cabbage scoop, the round-winged moth, the burdock and the meadow moth.
Experienced gardeners prefer to prevent pests from settling on mint bushes, for this they resort to preventive measures. Once every couple of years, it is necessary to replace the area set aside for growing mint. And when the bushes are removed, the vacated area must be deeply dug. When the crop is harvested, it is imperative to collect and burn all plant residues. If harmful insects have nevertheless settled on the bushes, then it is recommended to spray them with a concentrated infusion of celandine. In order to prepare such an infusion, you will need 200 grams of dried celandine leaves to combine with 10 liters of water, after a day you need to pour soap crushed on a grater into the mixture. However, if such an infusion turned out to be ineffective, then the bushes must be sprayed with a Decis solution, while such processing is carried out no later than 4 weeks before harvesting.
Almost 25 species and 10 subspecies of peppermint are known. The most popular ones will be described below:
The height of a powerful bush is about 0.9 m. This species does not differ in the strong cooling effect that peppermint has, since in this plant the main component is an essential oil called carvone. This mint is added to soft drinks and tea, and is also used to flavor toothpaste.
Plant height is from 0.8 to 0.9 m. Such mint, unlike other species, has curly foliage and high resistance to frost. Its leaves do not have the strong menthol flavor of peppermint. Such a plant is quite popular in cooking, and it is also used in alternative medicine, for example, a decoction of foliage is used as a sedative, to eliminate pain in injuries and for healing baths.
The height of the bush is about 0.6 m. Dark green velvety leaf plates have a rounded shape. The scent of such a plant is not very strong compared to the scent of peppermint.This mint is used to add to meat dishes, various drinks, soups and salads, as well as baked goods and desserts.
The height of a powerful bush is about one and a half meters. His rhizome is creeping, and the shoots are tetrahedral and dissected. The color of the leaf blades is dark green, and their edge is serrate-toothed. The bushes have a delicate and pleasant smell, so this mint is used as an additive to vegetable broths, salads and soups, as well as to some meat dishes, for example: to fried beef or barbecue. The foliage of this plant is added to the marinade when preserving eggplants, and is also used as a spice when salting cabbage. This type is also used in the perfumery industry, in particular in soap making.
This species is widespread in nature and therefore is found everywhere. The height of the bushes is about 0.8 meters. The foliage does not have the strong aroma and cooling menthol flavor that peppermint has. Dried or fresh leaves are used as an additive in various drinks, for example, in tea, put in baked goods, fish dishes, salads, vegetable soups and in cabbage, in the process of salting it. A decoction of this plant is used to treat inflammation and headaches.
Plant height is about 100 centimeters. Branched erect shoots have slight pubescence. Opposite leaf plates have a rounded ovoid shape and a serrated edge. The front surface of the leaves is dark green in color, and the back has a paler shade. This species has a pleasant mint-lemon odor, as well as medicinal properties. This species also has a second name - lemon balm.
In this perennial plant, a stable erect stem reaches a height of 0.4–1 meters. Wrinkled leaf plates are colored green, along the edge of them there is a strip of cream color. These leaves have a pleasant smell. This mint is widely used in cooking, and for a long time it has been used in folk medicine, as it has healing properties.
Did you know how many varieties of MINT?
In addition to these species, gardeners cultivate home mint, Moroccan, Korean, orange (bergamot), dog, steppe, water mint, etc.
Peppermint is different from all other species, it is grown on an industrial scale. There are a very large number of hybrids and varieties of this species, which are very diverse. The most popular varieties and hybrids are:
The following varieties of peppermint are quite popular among gardeners: Simferopolskaya 200, Zagrava, Zarya, Vysokomentolnaya, Serebristaya, Yantarnaya, Medicka, Moskvichka, Krasnodarskaya 2, Kubanskaya 6, etc.
The flowers, foliage and stems of mint contain bitter, tannins and biologically active substances, fats, sugars, phytoncides, vitamins C and P, mineral salts, carotene, essential oil, which contains menthol.
This plant is used in both official and non-traditional medicine for nervous disorders, headaches, toothaches, asthma, throat diseases, cardiovascular diseases, insomnia, neuralgia, inflammation of the digestive system, colds, bronchitis, atherosclerosis and others. diseases.
Menthol has an analgesic, antimicrobial and antispasmodic effect. Inside, it is recommended to take such a plant to expand the coronary vessels with angina pectoris, with painful sensations in the stomach or intestines. External use of mint is recommended for bronchitis, neuralgia or toothache. Menthol is found in ointments for the common cold, mouthwash, Zelenin drops and valocordin.
From the foliage of such a plant, tinctures and infusions are prepared that can improve digestion, increase appetite and relieve vomiting and nausea. Means, which include mint, are used as a pain reliever for hepatic colic, as choleretic drugs for stones in the gallbladder or for jaundice, and also as a means of stimulating the work of the heart.
In Germany, the foliage of this plant is part of the healing teas used for flatulence and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Mint baths are also popular in this country. Peppermint is used in Australia for tinctures and decoctions. The foliage of such a plant in Poland is used in the treatment of inflammation of the periosteum, middle ear, as well as for migraines, insomnia and neuralgia. Mint is included in preparations designed to improve odor and taste. In Russia, in alternative medicine, mint foliage is used as a choleretic, diaphoretic and refreshing agent.
Wild mint leaves are used to make juice used in the treatment of kidney stones. If this juice is mixed with white wine, then this mixture will have a diuretic effect. This plant is found in stomachs, teas and baths. It is also widely used in the perfumery and cooking industries.
Mint - beneficial properties and uses. APPLICATIONS of mint for health and beauty
Some people have an individual intolerance to mint and the products in which it is included. This plant can cause an allergic reaction. Peppermint oil should not be used if pregnant or breastfeeding, and should not be given to children under 6 years of age. Means from peppermint should not be used in large quantities by men, as this type helps to reduce sexual desire.
In case of an overdose of products made from mint, a person may experience painful sensations in the heart, bronchospasm and sleep disturbance.
Popular mint recipes that will be useful to everyone will be described below:
When the first daffodils give us their flowers, it means that real spring has come. They become one of the first decorations in the spring garden. These unpretentious bulbous plants are easy enough to grow. This article describes in detail how to grow daffodils correctly - planting and care in the open field, in pots.
To grow mint from seed, you should prepare in advance to create comfortable conditions for development. Despite the fact that the plant reproduces well in the wild, the rules of agricultural technology applied in the garden will make it possible to grow a beautifully flowering ornamental shrub.
The culture is unassuming, but the soil is of great importance to it. The land should be fertile, moisture-consuming, loose. Loam and sandstone without signs of boggy are best suited.
Important! The garden bed is prepared in advance - since the fall. During digging, a bucket of humus is introduced for each square meter of the site. In the spring, a few days before planting mint in the country, earth clods are broken and the bed is leveled.
Despite its frost resistance, the culture loves light and warmth. Therefore, he prefers to settle in well-lit areas. Mint can normally tolerate a light openwork shade. On plots, where the sun's rays penetrate with difficulty, the plant looks inconspicuous - the leaves and flowers become smaller, fade.
Gardeners know how to plant mint seeds outdoors. There are no special tricks here. All actions are reduced to following the rules:
When shoots appear, and 2 leaves are formed on them, extra seedlings can be removed, keeping the distance between the remaining ones about 35-40 cm.
Note! You should not throw out the removed sprouts - they can be planted in another area (provided that the roots are not damaged).
The first top dressing is applied in the spring, when preparing the beds for planting. A set of mineral fertilizers is used (per 1 sq. M):
For the next 2 years, neither organic nor mineral water should be added to the area sown with mint. Plants have enough nutrients available in the soil. In the fall of the 3rd year, rotted cow dung (per 1 sq. M 2 kg) is scattered on the garden bed (flower bed).
Rosemary does not require any special care. It grows in the wild, which means it will grow here too. However.
Watering should be regular but moderate. If you still remember, rosemary does not like moist soil. You should not underfill either. You will understand that the bush does not have enough moisture if its leaves begin to turn yellow. And if you fill it with water, it can throw off the leaves, letting you know: they say, that's enough, he's gotten drunk already. In general, avoid extremes.
Well, loosen and weed, of course, it is necessary. This is a matter of course. But what to feed? Some are watered with mullein solution (in a ratio of 1: 5). Others use complex mineral and organic fertilizers containing phosphorus and nitrogen. Once a month is enough.
Rosemary in the garden
In the spring, they are watered with nitrogen fertilizers - this is necessary for the formation of the root system. And in the fall, phosphorus is better. Then the plant will feel comfortable and will be able to decorate your site for a long time.
In the industrial cultivation of rosemary, once every 7-8 years, its bushes are cut to the level of the soil. So to speak, they rejuvenate - so that new shoots go. If your rosemary bush is already old, I think it makes sense to do this. In addition, the bushes need to be shaped if you want them to be beautiful. Usually, formative pruning is done in March-April.
Formative pruning of rosemary is carried out in the spring
As far as I know, in the south of Russia, rosemary grows well and so. It was first brought to Crimea in the 19th century and, apparently, he liked it there)). But in our cold climate, it is better to play it safe and cover, if possible. Otherwise it may freeze out.
Often they do it differently: cut the rosemary and transplant it into a pot for the winter. For the middle lane, this is perhaps the most reliable option.
It seems that this is all about leaving. Let's talk about harvesting.
Caring for the mint grown in the mini garden on the windowsill is not difficult at all. To make the plant feel good, it is enough to perform the following work:
Advice. If the plant bloomed in the room, then you need to wait until almost all the buds open and cut off the stems, leaving 2-3 cm from the soil level. After such a radical measure, the bush will branch more strongly.
Growing chocolate mint indoors is quite a simple matter, the result of which is a double benefit - cute green bushes are pleasing to the eye and fresh, fragrant leaves are always at hand.