The plant oregano (Origanum), or oregano, is a representative of the Lamiaceae family. This genus, which is related to mint, rosemary and other aromatic herbs, includes over fifty species. Flower names reflect its properties. It was named "Oregano" due to its characteristic pleasant aroma, and the Latin name "oreganum" means "mountain decoration" and is associated with the beauty of the look that flowering bushes give to the rocky terrain.
Blooming oregano really looks very elegant. Its bushes are often included among the herbs grown not only for garden decoration, but also for cooking. You can make delicious tea from it, and also use it as a seasoning. Oregano also perfectly helps neighbors in the garden, scaring away pests from them with its aroma.
In nature, such plants can be found in many parts of the world, although the homeland of oregano is considered to be southwest Asia and northern Africa. Bushes thrive in the Mediterranean - Europeans have used oregano as a spice since the 16th century. Some species also live in Russia, in forests and meadows.
Oregano forms perennial bushes from 30 to 70 cm tall. They have strong enough roots that allow plants to quickly spread, capturing neighboring territories. The foliage is ovoid and tapered at the end. During the flowering period, inflorescences with small flowers of various colors appear on the bushes, including shades of white, pink, purple and yellow.
Oregano begins to bloom from the second year of cultivation. Oregano usually blooms from early July to late August or early September. After the withering of the flowers, nuts are tied, filled with small dust-like seeds.
In addition to "oregano", oregano can also be called motherboard (due to its effect on female organs), incense (bags of fragrant herbs were used to perfume clothes and improve sleep) or forest mint. One type of oregano is another popular spice - marjoram.
SOUL (oregano) - longevity herb, female herb // Useful properties, cultivation and application
The table shows short rules for growing oregano in the open field.
|Landing||Planting oregano is carried out after the soil warms up well, and the threat of frost will recede - around the end of May.|
|Lighting level||These plants should be planted in the sun. Growing in the shade, oregano stretches out and has a weaker aroma.|
|Watering mode||Watering is carried out as the topsoil dries up. Sometimes the plants can get enough rainfall.|
|The soil||Fertile and moist soil is best.|
|Top dressing||Oregano is fed from the beginning of spring, while only adult plants will need feeding.|
|Bloom||Oregano usually blooms from early July to late August or early September.|
|Pruning||Flowers should be cut off - it takes a lot of energy to bloom for oregano.|
|Reproduction||Seeds, dividing the bush, layering, cuttings.|
Seeds are most often used to grow oregano, but due to their tiny size, the seedlings are quickly clogged with weeds or suffer from heavy rains. To avoid this and get as many plants as possible from the available seeds, oregano is sown on seedlings.
Seedlings grown at home are transferred to the beds in late spring or early summer. To obtain strong healthy bushes by this time, sowing is carried out in February-March. You can use both separate pots and a large common container. The selected container is filled with nutrient soil, which includes sand. The substrate is slightly moistened, small grooves are made on it up to 1 cm deep and the seeds are distributed in them. They do not need pre-planting preparation.
The container is kept in a bright and warm (at least 20-22 degrees) place; it is not necessary to cover it with a film. The sprouts show up within a couple of weeks. At first, the seedlings have a very fragile and delicate appearance, but gradually they get stronger.
How to plant oregano (oregano)
At first, thin seedlings can be easily drowned out by weeds, so this should be closely monitored even at home. Weeds are carefully removed from the pots or garden beds as they appear. If the oregano sown on the street has sprouted too often, it is thinned out, leaving only the strongest shoots. You can remove them or try to plant them. This will allow the rest of the plants to form in less crowded conditions.
A spray bottle is used for watering - the usual method can erode the soil or damage fragile shoots. The soil is moistened regularly as it dries. At home, the oregano container should be in the brightest place. At the same time, it is periodically turned to the light with different sides so that the sprouts develop evenly. The room with seedlings should be ventilated, but the seedlings should not be in a draft.
A pick in individual pots is carried out after the seedlings form 2-3 true leaves. This will allow the bushes to take root well and get stronger before the upcoming disembarkation. Depending on the density of the seedlings, the plants can be transplanted or transferred into a new container. For a simple transplant, the soil is pre-watered, and after a few hours, the sprouts are taken out with a spoon, holding them by a lump of soil or cotyledon leaves. They are transplanted into cups with a volume of no more than 0.5 liters, using peat-sandy soil, and then watered again. The seedlings should spend several days in the shade. Transfer is considered to be a more gentle method and is suitable for seedlings in small containers or in their own cups. To do this, you can not water the soil in advance, transferring the seedlings to a new place in dry soil.
In order not to injure the root system for sure while moving the seedlings to the beds, peat pots can be used for picking. A cloudy day is chosen for transplanting to the street so that the scorching sun does not harm weakened plants. A distance of about 20-50 cm is maintained between the bushes, depending on the size of the variety. For decorative purposes, plants can be planted a little closer. While the oregano takes root in a new place, you should especially carefully monitor the schedule of its watering.
Its appearance and useful properties depend on the choice of a place for growing oregano. The more fertile the soil, the more valuable substances will accumulate in the foliage.
These plants should be planted in the sun. Growing in the shade, oregano stretches out and has a weaker aroma. At the same time, the composition of the soil is almost irrelevant, but fertile and sufficiently moist soil is best suited for perennial plantings. Too dry or waterlogged corners for planting will not work. Under these conditions, oregano can turn into a common garden weed or abyss.
The preparation of the planting site should be done in the fall - at this time, manure or compost, or saltpeter, and sometimes superphosphate are additionally introduced into the soil.
Oregano is often chosen to create herb gardens on the windowsill. It is possible to grow such a bush in a pot, but in this case it will be possible to wait for flowering only in the second year of the plant's life. For home planting, pots with a capacity of about 2-3 liters are used, with drainage holes, as well as any universal soil. In the summer, containers or pots of plants can be moved into the garden, but they are returned to the house before frost. The main disadvantage of indoor specimens is a lower content of nutrients in comparison with garden ones.
How to plant oregano (oregano) continued.
If it is decided to sow oregano directly on the garden bed, this is done only after the soil warms up well and the threat of frost will recede - around the end of May. Direct sowing is usually carried out with large seed volumes. The sowing bed is thoroughly dug up and cleaned of weeds, then rows are made on it at a distance of 45 cm and seeds are densely sown in them.
In the first year of growing oregano, while the plants are not yet considered adults, they need to be looked after more carefully, not forgetting about timely watering, weeding and fertilization.
Oregano is not too demanding on moisture, but you should not completely run a bed with it - the soil should not completely dry out. Watering is carried out as the topsoil dries up. Sometimes the bushes may have enough rainfall. To avoid stagnation of moisture in a too rainy summer, depressions are made next to the bushes to drain moisture. For watering, it is recommended to use a watering can with small holes.
Both lack and excess of moisture have a bad effect on the content of essential oils in the foliage of the plant. It is especially important to keep track of your watering schedule for the first two years of growing.
Oregano begins to be fed from the beginning of spring, while only adult bushes will need feeding. Young first-year plants will have enough nutrients introduced into the soil before planting in the fall. The rest of the bushes are fertilized immediately after the spring awakening, using saltpeter or mullein solution. If necessary, the same fertilizers are applied in the summer, immediately after the harvest. Organic nutrient solutions will help the plant recover faster and form new greens.
If oregano grows in a flower bed as a decorative flower, it will not need such feeding. Otherwise, the bush will be looser, and its flowering will weaken. Fertilizers for flowering species containing potassium and phosphorus can be used if desired.
The soil under the oregano should remain loose. Frequent loosening to a shallow (about 1.5 cm) depth helps protect plants from weeds - young oregano develops rather slowly and cannot withstand their abundance. After a couple of years of cultivation, the bushes will become large enough and will be able to drown out the weeds themselves. To reduce the number of watering and weeding, you can mulch the root area of the plantings with a layer of straw. If you leave such mulch in the garden in the fall, it will serve as additional protection from the cold in the off-season.
Oregano is unpretentious and can grow in one place for about 20-25 years. But for the regular collection of foliage, the bushes should be transplanted periodically. Once every 5 years, they are transferred to a new place and divided. Otherwise, the shoots begin to grow stiff, stretch out, the number of foliage decreases and the flowering becomes weaker. At the same time, the garden bed on which the oregano grew is suitable for growing any other crop. The impact of bushes on the ground clears it of pests and bacteria.
Oregano itself is recommended to be planted in places where root crops grew - potatoes or carrots, as well as legumes. Cucumber or zucchini beds, on the other hand, are avoided.
If flowers begin to appear on young bushes, they should be cut off - it takes a lot of energy for oregano to bloom, and in the first year of life, the bushes are already considered weaker. If oregano is grown specifically for the foliage, the inflorescences can also be cut off from adult plants - this way the leaves will receive more nutrition and become larger.
In the spring, overwintered plants are trying to cleanse most of last year's shoots. Such measures will promote the development of fresh growth with more powerful and densely leafy stems.
Oregano winters well under the snow and does not need shelter for the winter. Often, under the early established cover, its foliage remains green until spring. If the above-ground part freezes, fresh growth will form from the roots in spring.
Along with seed propagation, new oregano specimens can be obtained by dividing bushes or by forming layers.
Adult and large bushes can be divided into 2-3 parts. During this procedure, they try to maintain the integrity of the shoots, and also not to injure the roots too much. Each division must contain at least 4 buds. Sections are treated with ash or crushed coal. The distance between plantings is maintained based on the size of the bushes. Water is poured into the prepared pits, then part of the bush is exposed in them and sprinkled with soil.
To form a layering on the bush, large stems are selected, bend them to the soil and slightly drip in, leaving the upper part free. Gradually, such stems should form their own roots. The following spring, the plants are separated from the main oregano bush and transplanted to the selected location.
For transplanting such seedlings (cuttings or cuttings), spring or early autumn is best suited. This will allow such bushes to take root before the frost begins. If you provide the seedlings with good watering, they can be transplanted in the summer.
Oregano can also be propagated by cuttings. To do this, choose non-lignified shoots with several internodes and root them in water or an improvised greenhouse. Cuttings can be cut throughout the season.
Oregano should be harvested during flowering - in the middle of summer. In order not to harm the plantings, only three stalks about 20 cm long are cut from each bush. A larger amount can weaken the bush too much.
The resulting stems are tied in bunches and hung in a ventilated corner to dry. You can also dry the oregano on paper, but the shoots will have to be turned over from time to time. After complete drying, the foliage is collected from the stems and folded into a tightly closed glass jar. The shoots themselves can be thrown away. In an airtight container in a dark place, foliage can be stored for about 2 years. Dry greens have a stronger aroma than fresh ones.
Oregano seeds are harvested in early autumn, after they are fully ripe. In order to surely get high-quality material, in July, during the period of collecting shoots, the strongest and most developed stems are left on the bush. In autumn, they are cut along with the fruit pods and dried thoroughly. To collect them, they are rubbed with hands and sieved through a sieve. The dried seeds are stored in paper bags in a dark and dry place.
Of the many types of oregano, only a few are grown in the garden. But these plants have a number of varieties with different colors of inflorescences, useful properties and taste. Often they have a high yield and are even more unpretentious than species plants. But varieties of foreign selection are distinguished by a lower degree of frost resistance and are not always suitable for regions with severe winters.
A perennial plant with a height of 50 to 70 cm. Origanum vulgare has branched creeping roots. Its shoots are erect, covered with soft fluff in the lower part. Their upper part is strongly branched. The foliage is opposite and has the shape of an egg or oval. The leaves are colored deep green and are kept on petioles. Their length reaches 4 cm. Flowers appear in the first half of summer. During this period, fragrant inflorescences-shields are formed on the tops and in the upper sinuses. The flower petals are pale pink and the calyx purple. The species is considered resistant to both frost and drought. Main varieties:
Bushes of this species are up to 30 cm high, although sometimes they grow up to a meter. Origanum dictamnus has tough shoots with foliage covered with silvery villi. The shape of the leaf plates is oval-rounded. Small pink flowers form inflorescences, complemented by bracts of greenish-pink color. They are larger. The inflorescences hang from the peduncles, resembling hop cones.
Since ancient times, the juice of such oregano has been used as a remedy for stomach pains, and also has a particularly strong antibacterial effect.
Oregano is used not only as a spice, but also as a medicinal plant. It has the ability to affect the nervous system, improving sleep, overall health, and even dealing with headaches. Oregano improves breathing, which can help with colds, and also cope with rheumatism. The positive effect on the female reproductive organs helps to improve well-being during menopause, alleviates the symptoms of PMS and helps to restore the disturbed cycle. Oregano can improve appetite and digestion, heal stomatitis, and heal skin if dermatitis or rashes appear. Foliage-based products are taken orally or add a decoction to medicinal baths.
In cooking, oregano can be used as a seasoning; it is used not only to add special flavor notes to dishes, but also during preservation. Due to its strong aroma, a small amount of such seasoning will be enough for the desired effect. Oregano has a slightly bitter and pungent taste. Economical use allows you to get sufficient yield from just a few bushes.
Longevity herb in your garden - Oregano (Oríganum vulgáre) useful properties, application
Oregano serves as a good base for aromatic and healing tea, and is considered an excellent and productive honey plant in the garden. In addition to bees, plants attract many butterflies, further decorating the garden. Bushes are able to help with the housework. The aroma of the collected herb helps to repel moths and other house and garden insects. Oregano is also used in industry as a fragrance for perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and hygiene products.
Marjoram (Origanum majorana) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) are closely related and belong to the genus Dusitsa, which includes more than 40 species. However, it is not uncommon for a plant of one species to be sold under different names.
Our spicy heroes did not escape this fate: oregano can often be seen on counters called marjoram, and vice versa. Some are even sure that it is one and the same plant. And they are fundamentally mistaken!
So, if you are eager to expand your collection of representatives of the fragrant genus, we recommend that you first familiarize yourself with the botanical names of different species and focus on them when buying. Let's “find 5 differences” between marjoram and oregano.
Marjoram is a true southerner. It needs a lot of heat - much more than oregano. Actually, this is why perennials are grown in our latitudes only as an annual. As an option: cuttings can be cut from the plant, rooted and left indoors for the winter.
Well, common oregano grows in the wild almost throughout the territory of our vast homeland, is distinguished by its endurance and winters well without any shelter. However, this applies to the local herb.
Many, especially southern countries, have their own regional subspecies of oregano, and they all have a completely different aroma.
These representatives of the flora are as thermophilic as marjoram, and in our latitudes are not able to winter in the open ground.
If desired, they can be dug up in the fall, transplanted into pots and brought into a bright room. Except that Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare subsp.hirtum) can winter in the garden. By the way, if you are looking for oregano seeds, please note that it is often sold under the trade name Oregano.
What unites oregano with marjoram is that these herbs acquire their characteristic taste and smell only in an absolutely sunny place. Pasha local oregano feels great in partial shade, but here it grows more like a lovely ground cover plant, but very few essential oils accumulate in it.
All representatives of the genus Oregano feel great on marginal soils, and with an excess of nutrients, on the contrary, they grow worse and more often suffer from fungal diseases. In the spring, it is enough to add compost to the garden bed - this food will be enough for the entire summer season.
Lack of "food" can be diagnosed by the color of the lower leaves: if they turn yellow, then the plants are starving. In this case, add a little liquid organic fertilizer to the water for irrigation, or use a rake in the soil around the bushes with some horn flour. Watering herbs should be done only in severe drought.
For cooking, you can pluck whole shoots or just leaves. Do you want to dry herbs for future use? In July, on the eve of or during flowering, cut twigs 5 cm above soil level and spread out in a shady, well-ventilated area.
Dwarf oregano (Origanum vulgare) 'Compactum' grows as a compact bush and blooms from July to September.
We continue to stock up on medicinal raw materials in our own garden. And Andrey TSITSILIN, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences from Moscow, will tell us about the cultivation and useful properties of the next "trio" of plants.
Dyeing gorse Genista tinctorial: useful properties
Gorse bushes adorn the garden in June-July. They love the sun (a great place - on a slope or a hill), they can grow in partial shade, but they bloom worse there.
It can be planted with open roots in August-September or in spring. Gorse prefers a limestone or sandy soil that is loose and drained. Fertile is not for him. The main thing is not to plant in acidic soil and not to pour. Before planting on heavy soil, you need to arrange drainage. It is advisable to add 1 tbsp to the prepared pit. dolomite flour or lime.
Flowers and leaves are harvested during flowering. Dyeing gorse (pictured) is a poisonous plant; use only under medical supervision.
Tincture for removing warts: 10 g of dried flowers and fruits, pour 100 ml of vodka and leave for a week in a dark place. Apply tampons at night for several days.
Decoction of the herb as a diuretic and laxative: 15 g of dry grass, pour 0.5 l of water, put on fire and evaporate a third of the volume. Cool and strain thoroughly. Drink 2 tablespoons. every 3 hours - every other day. And so - until the effect is obtained.
Decoction applications can be used to treat skin fungus, furunculosis, scrofula and lichen.
In folk medicine, oregano was most often used as a disinfectant and anti-inflammatory agent, but, in addition, decoctions and infusions of the plant also have an expectorant, sweat and choleretic effect, lower blood pressure, normalize the nervous system and are very useful for various diseases of the female reproductive system. systems.
Here main indications for the use of oregano:
There are about 50 species of dushitsa around the world. The native land of the plant is considered to be South-West Asia, since ancient times it has been known in North Africa. It can be found throughout the territory from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Asia. Oregano loves light and dry soil, so more often it can be found in dry forests, in bright places - glades, meadows, forest edges.
Western and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Kazakhstan are places of constant growth of oregano. It was brought to America only in the last century and immediately began to be cultivated as a medicinal plant and a spice. In Russia, it grows everywhere, except for the northernmost regions, it can be found in open spaces and in thickets of bushes.
Perennial oregano is very unpretentious. It tolerates severe frosts and summer heat, humus-poor soil and high soil acidity.
If you want to get a full-fledged and healthy plant, then choose a place higher up, since the spice does not tolerate stagnant water. It will be comfortable for the oregano bush on light sandy loam soils with neutral acidity.
Like any spicy herb of Mediterranean origin, oregano is very fond of the sun, and specimens grown in the shade are less decorative and useful. The more heat and light the plant receives, the brighter its aroma will be and the higher the concentration of essential oils, vitamins and microelements.
The cut branches are laid out in a thin layer on the flooring under a canopy or in the attic, where the sun's rays do not reach. In order for the raw material to dry out evenly, it must be periodically agitated.
When the twigs are completely dry and brittle, and the leaves will easily crumble, the raw material is threshed, separating the leaves and flowers from the rough stems.
Quality raw material is a mixture of leaves and flowers with a small amount of thin dried stems.
Dried oregano leaves are usually green in color, and the number of yellowed leaves should not exceed 7%. The smell of dry oregano is strong and pleasant. The taste is spicy, with bitterness, slightly astringent.
Raw materials are stored in paper bags or canvas bags separately from other medicinal herbs in a dry, cool room, without access to light for 1-1.5 years. If the grass is without twigs, then you can pour it into a glass jar and close with a screw cap. In such a container, dried oregano can be stored for about three years.
Oregano ordinary - perennial herbaceous aromatic plant from the family Labiatae, with a creeping, branched rhizome. Stems 30-60 cm high, erect. Leaves are opposite, petiolate, oblong-ovate, finely toothed, dark green above, lighter below, pubescent with short hairs. Flowers are small, purple, numerous, collected in oblong inflorescences.
Oregano is often called wild marjoram, as its delicately scented leaves are very similar to marjoram. And in general, even in the literature it is confused with marjoram, but these are different plants, albeit relatives. And because of the mint flavor, oregano is equated in some countries with mint. Like lemon balm, its scent is very pleasant to bees, and hives are rubbed with oregano.
Dry grass and oregano flowers contain essential oil with a pleasant smell and bactericidal properties, ascorbic acid, carotene, thymol, tannins and other substances.
Oregano is used as a sedative for neuroses, insomnia, headache, as well as for gastritis with reduced secretory function, cholecystitis, tuberculosis.
In folk medicine, oregano used for headaches, catarrh of the respiratory tract, colds, sexual dysfunction, rheumatism, lack of appetite and for strengthening baths.
Oregano stimulates the appetite, improves digestion and raises the general tone of the body - "cheers the heart". Oregano essential oil, the so-called hop oil, was our ancestors' favorite remedy for toothache. Oregano is commonly used as a good honey plant.
And most importantly, it is very important to plant oregano in your garden in order to preserve the wild-growing natural gene pool of this plant.
The wild populations of oregano are quite diverse in both flower color and other characteristics.
For the industrial production of raw materials, the variety is of interest Rainbow.
The agrotechnology of growing oregano is quite simple and even a novice gardener will be able to do it. In return for the effort spent, you will receive an environmentally friendly, home-grown seasoning for dishes, as well as healing raw materials for making tea, baths and inhalations..
The plant is very unpretentious and cold-resistant, it can grow on any soil. But the plant is photophilous and develops better in sunny, fertile areas. Watering is moderate, regular. Does not tolerate waterlogging and stagnation of water on the site.
Oregano is easily propagated by cuttings, layering and division of the mother bush. Layers are made in May or September. For planting, take layers with 3-4 growth buds.
Blooming aboveground leafy stems of oregano are harvested as raw materials., cutting off with knives or sickles tops up to 20 cm long. Dry raw oregano in the air in the shade or in a well-ventilated area. The dried raw material is lightly rubbed to remove the thickened stems.
The resulting dry oregano is stored in tightly closed jars in a dark place.
Raw leaves and young sprigs of oregano, with a pleasant spicy aroma, have long been used in Russia in kvass and homemade beer, to which, in addition to the smell, it gave the ability to persist for a long time.
In cooking, dried oregano is usually used, although the fresh plant has a richer taste. Dried oregano is found in many spice mixtures. The aromatic component of oregano is very strong, it is close to marjoram and caraway - strong, slightly astringent, tart, bitter-spicy.
Grass oregano used in the preparation of salads, spaghetti, tomato sauces, sausages, vegetable dishes. Oregano goes well with oven baked potatoes with olive oil and tomatoes, and is also good for all kinds of omelets.
It is added to cheeses, soups, etc. It is also used when roasting meat in the oven and grilling, as well as stewing meat, chicken, cooking canned food, pickling cucumbers. A proven dry mix combination is oregano with basil and black pepper.
Oregano, a wonderful medicinal plant given to us by nature. It is a wonderful antiseptic that helps us fight various diseases. Oregano is used to treat stomach ulcers and duodenal ulcers, chronic constipation, cramps in the stomach and intestines, as a choleretic for diseases of the liver, gallbladder, jaundice, worms and hemorrhoids.
How to make a decoction of oregano: Pour 2 tablespoons of dry, chopped herbs with 1 glass of boiling water, hold in a water bath for 15 minutes, then remove from heat and leave for another 45 minutes. Drink the broth warm, 1/3 cup, 2 times a day, 15 minutes before meals. Can be steamed in a thermos in the same proportions.