Potatoes are one of the most popular agricultural crops grown not only in our country, but also in many countries of Eastern Europe. Over the course of three hundred years of potato cultivation, agronomic technologies have been created, with the help of which they tried to facilitate the cultivation of the crop and increase its yield. If on an industrial scale for growing potatoes today, tractors with replaceable cultivator nozzles are used for hilling plants, then on personal plots you can use a do-it-yourself hiller for a walk-behind tractor.
The hiller is the second most important tool after the plow and winch. With its help, you can first cut the furrows for planting, and then fill them with planting material.
Carrying out the hiller along the aisles of evenly planted rows of potatoes, you can observe how the wings of the tool quickly pour soil into the holes with tubers
On sale you can find several options for the models of this tool.
This is the simplest type of tool and has a fixed working width. The design consists of two connected and slightly spread fixed wings. Since the tool wings are stationary, the furrow width cannot be adjusted by adjusting the hiller to the row spacing. Therefore, when working with such a tool, the aisles are adapted to the capabilities of the hiller, and not vice versa. Traditionally, manufacturers produce products with a working width of 25-30 cm, which is also far from the most convenient option, because the technology of growing potatoes provides for a row spacing of 50-60 cm.
Such tools are designed to work with motor cultivators, the power of which does not exceed 3.5 HP, and the total weight of the unit is 25-30 kg
A feature of the design of lister hillers is also the presence of thin racks that prevent overloading of the cultivator when the hiller is buried in layers of dense soil.
Some models of lister hillers have a streamlined shape, which is more preferable, since when working with such a tool, the soil turns out and dries out less.
There may also be useful material on how to monitor the condition of the soil in the country: https://diz-cafe.com/ozelenenie/ot-chego-zavisit-plodorodie-pochvy.html
Such tools are more convenient to use, since they are equipped with an adjusting mechanism with which you can change the position of the wings. This allows the tool to adapt to different row spacings.
Such hillers are designed to work with more powerful walk-behind tractors with an engine of 4.0 hp. and more, the weight of which exceeds 30 kg
A significant drawback of such structures is their high energy consumption. The reason for this is that in the process of operation, the wings of the tool move the soil to the side, part of which, after passing through it, nevertheless crumbles back into the furrow. As a result, the back and arms get tired faster, and some of the engine power is wasted on useless work. But despite this, they are one of the most popular models among most gardeners.
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Disk hillers cost an order of magnitude more expensive than their traditional counterparts, but the efficiency of working with such tools is many times greater
The main advantages of disc hillers are:
Choosing among the variety of assortments, it is advisable to give preference to models made of alloy steel, equipped with rolling bearings (and not sleeve bushings), with a large diameter and thickness of discs.
The principle of operation of the tool lies in the work of special propellers, under the action of which the soil is first crushed and weeds are combed out, and after that the beds are spud with loose soil
Such hillers are intended for equipping walk-behind tractors and motor-cultivators, which have two forward gears. This is necessary so that in the second gear with an increase in power up to 180 rpm, using the tool, you can not only loosen, but also transfer the soil into the beds from the row spacing.
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As you can see, hillers are fairly simple designs. There is nothing difficult in making a do-it-yourself hiller for a walk-behind tractor.
To create a traditional unregulated hiller, it is necessary to cut the halves of the product using a 2 mm thick metal template
These halves should be bent until the radii coincide, and then welded in 2-3 passes. Weld seams should be treated with a grinder and, if necessary, selectively welded and re-cleaned. The result should be a perfect, even layer of metal.
The tool wings are also cut from 2 mm thick metal and connected in the same way.
The result should be the following design. For clarity, the thickness of the elements and all dimensions of the tool base are indicated
To make the tool, you need to select the type of wings. Discs, or plowshares, dumps, are steel sheets 1.5-2 mm thick, with bent lower edges.
An important condition: the disks must be strictly symmetrical. Otherwise, the design will lead to the side, which will significantly complicate the work.
When arranging the structure, you can use plowshares taken from an old seeder.
Plowshares are installed at an angle, keeping the distance between the lower points corresponding to the width of the wheel track, equal to the width of the row spacing
The elements are connected to each other using a bolted connection or by welding. The disks themselves are connected using adjustable adapters. In addition to discs, the main elements of the tool are: a T-shaped leader, screw lanyards and stands. Lanyards are needed to adjust along the vertical axis of rotation of the discs. The tool is attached to the walk-behind tractor using a beam with wings.
When manufacturing and assembling parts based on the drawing, it is important to provide for the ratio of dimensions and the design of the fastening. There are two options for making the tool: with a fixed or variable wing width. In the second method of arrangement, the distance between the disks can be changed by symmetrically rearranging the racks.
The main assembly elements: 1 - processed row, 2 - disc, 3 - fist, 4 - T-shaped bracket, 5 - post, 6 - steel scraper, 7 - bridge beam, 8 - locking bolt, 9 - beam handle
To facilitate the work with the tool, it is necessary to provide for the arrangement of plain bearings. By installing bearings rather than sleeve bushings, product reliability can be improved.
The material on how to make an adapter for a walk-behind tractor on your own will also be useful: https://diz-cafe.com/tech/adapter-dlya-motobloka-svoimi-rukami.html
In the process of assembling the structure for attaching the tool to the walk-behind tractor, a hitch bracket without a bead is used. To do this, a hiller leash is attached to the bracket using a stopper and bolts with flat washers. The stopper is inserted inside the square pipe and pressed tightly against its outer surface.
The hitch bracket itself is turned with bolts, and the leash is placed along the longitudinal axis of the walk-behind tractor
The unit is now ready for operation. Working in first gear, by reducing the forward speed, you can increase the traction of the walk-behind tractor. If the wheels slip during the hilling process, they must be paired.
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Hilling crops preserves soil fertility, increases the efficiency of cultivation, and reduces the cost of fertilization and watering. It is impossible to harvest a rich harvest of some vegetable plants, especially potatoes, without this procedure. But to huddle by hand is long and tedious. It is faster and more economical to use a walk-behind tractor with a hiller. You can make such a device yourself. Consider what kind of potato hillers are for a walk-behind tractor and how to make them yourself.
Depending on the type and power of the walk-behind tractor, one or more devices can be installed on it. The increase in the number of the latter allows processing a large area in one pass.
This is possible on more powerful drive mechanisms or mini tractors. In addition, high soil resistance with simultaneous cultivation with several devices forces the use of enlarged wheels (lugs).
The single-row device processes the bed twice. First, they pass forward, then the unit must be turned 180 ° and the earth tucked on the other side. This cultivation method is convenient in that the operator does not need to control two sides at once. This will reduce the likelihood of damage to the plant root system.
Two-row hillers for a walk-behind tractor process one bed at a time. For the convenience of the user and to reduce damage to plants, planting should be carried out as flat as possible.
One or two hillers can be installed on the walk-behind tractor. Single row are lister and propeller, while all types can be used in pairs. Depending on their number, the nature of cultivation changes. When processing the beds with one hiller, the passage is carried out on each side, and the wheels of the walk-behind tractor are placed in a track between the plants. This method of cultivation does not allow obtaining high productivity.
Two-row hillers for a walk-behind tractor increase the efficiency of cultivation. In one pass, a ridge is formed on both sides of the bed. However, when working, the user has to control the contact area from both sides. This often leads to damage to the plant roots. The convenience of such models is the ability to adjust the width of hilling, which allows you to adjust it to the desired parameters.